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Canadian Book Trade and Library Index : Help

Overview

Illustrative image of the Parliament of Canada for the CANADIAN BOOK TRADE AND LIBRARY INDEX database.

The objective of the Canadian Book Trade and Library Index (CBTLI) database is to provide a comprehensive record of individuals and organizations involved in the book and allied trades in Canada. The database currently focuses on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Records have been created for individuals such as printers, booksellers, librarians, and paper makers and for organizations such as publishing houses, libraries, and press clubs.

Records were created by systematically searching a wide array of primary and secondary sources, including directories, newspapers, imprints, and archival sources. Records of individuals and organizations were created according to the following criteria:

  1. The subject was active in at least one book trade occupation or role.
  2. The subject was active within the territory that is now Canada.
  3. The following information, as a minimum, is available for the subject:
    • Name
    • Occupation or role
    • Date of activity
    • Geographic location
  4. The information about the individual or organization is available in authoritative published or archival sources.

Searching

There are two ways to search the CBTLI database: the Basic or the Advanced Search.

Basic Search

The Basic Search option allows the user to search the Name fields or Keywords individually or in combination.

Use the Name text-entry box to search the following fields:

  • Name
  • Variant Name Form(s)
  • Firm(s)/Institution(s)
  • Family Member(s) in Trade
  • Business Succession
  • Partner(s)
  • Apprentice(s)/Trainee(s)
  • Trade Contact(s)

Use the Keywords text-entry box to search the following fields:

  • Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s)
  • Non-Book Trade Role(s)
  • Province/Territory/District
  • Town
  • Notes

If terms are entered in both search boxes, records containing both terms will be retrieved. Except for the Name fields, where truncation may not be used, use the asterisk ( * ) to truncate terms.

Advanced Search

The Advanced Search option facilitates sophisticated queries on specific fields, and allows for the selection of Boolean operators (i.e. AND, OR) between search terms. Enter search terms into the text-entry boxes, then select the appropriate Boolean operator(s) and field(s) from the pull-down boxes.

The pull-down boxes contain lists of possible search terms for the Province/Territory/District, Book Trade Role, and Non-Book Trade Role fields.


Record Structure

The CBTLI database records are composed of the following fields:

Record ID: The identification number for the record.
Name: Name of individual or organization.
Variant Name Form(s): Other name(s) by which the subject was known.
Biographical Dates: Birth and death dates, when known. This field is blank for organizations.
Gender or Organization: Gender (M or F); Organization (O).
Geographic Origin: Country, state or province, and/or city from which the individual originated. This field is blank for organizations.
Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 1: The subject's book trade role and date(s) of activity.
Province/Territory/District 1: Province/territory/district in which the subject carried out the activity listed in Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 1.
Town 1: Town in which the subject carried out the activity listed in Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 1.
Street Address 1: Street address at which the subject carried out the activity listed in Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 1.
Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 2: The subject's book trade role(s) and date(s) of activity at a second address.
Province/Territory/District 2: Province/territory/district in which the subject carried out the activity listed in Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 2.
Town 2: Town in which the subject carried out the activity listed in Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 2.
Street Address 2: Street address at which the subject carried out the activity listed in Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 2.
Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 3: The subject's book trade role(s) and date(s) of activity at a third address.
Province/Territory/District 3: Province/territory/district in which the subject carried out the activity listed in Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 3.
Town 3: Town in which the subject carried out the activity listed in Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 3.
Street Address 3: Street address at which the subject carried out the activity listed in Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 3.
Non-Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s): Subject's non-book trade occupation or role.
Firm(s)/Institution(s): Name(s) of book trade organization(s) that employed the subject.
Official Appointment(s): Title(s) of any official government appointment(s) held by the subject.
Membership in Trade Association(s): Name(s) of trade association(s) to which the subject belonged.
Decade(s) in Business: Decade(s) in which the subject was involved in the book trade.
Family Member(s) in Trade: Name(s) of family member(s) who also worked in the book trade, their relationship to the subject, and their book trade role(s).
Partner(s): Name(s) of the subject's business partner(s).
Apprentice(s)/Trainee(s): Name(s) of any apprentice(s) or trainee(s) supervised by the subject.
Political Affiliation: The subject's political affiliation.
Religious Affiliation: The subject's religious affiliation.
Business Succession: Personal name or corporate name of the succeeding owner or business and the year of succession.
Trade Contact 1: Business contact, either inside or outside Canada.
Location 1: Location of Trade Contact 1.
Trade Contact 2: Additional business contact, either inside or outside Canada.
Location 2: Additional business contact, either inside or outside Canada.
Trade Contact 3: Location of Trade Contact 3.
Location 3: Additional business contact, either inside or outside Canada.
Location 5: Location of Trade Contact 4.
Location 4: Additional business contact, either inside or outside Canada.
Directory Sources: Location of Trade Contact 5.
Newspaper Sources: Title of the newspaper used as source for the record.
Other Published Sources: Title of other published source(s) used as source for the record.
Archival Sources: Archival source(s) used as source for the record.
Notes: Further information about the subject.

Record Example

NOTE: If a record does not contain any data in a field, that field will not be displayed with the record.

Record ID: 569
Name: Moore, Clement P.
Variant Name Form(s): Moore, C.P.
Gender or Organization: M
Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 1: Bookseller (unspecified) / Libraire (indéterminé), 1890-1900
Stationer (unspecified) / Marchand de papier (indéterminé), 1890-1900
Province/Territory/District 1 : Nova Scotia / Nouvelle-Écosse
Town 1: Sydney
Street Address 1: Charlotte Street
Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s) 2: Bookseller (unspecified) / Libraire (indéterminé), 1890-1897
Province/Territory/District 2: Nova Scotia / Nouvelle-Écosse
Town 2: North Sydney
Non-Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s): Fancy goods dealer / Marchand d'articles de fantaisie, 1890-1897
General merchant / Merchand, 1890-1897
Hardware merchant / Quincaillier, 1890-1900
Picture framer / Encadreue, 1890-1897
Toy maker/seller / Fabricant/Marchand de jouets, 1890-1896
Firm(s)/Institutions(s): MacKeen, Moore & Co.
Decade(s) in Business: 1890-1899
1900-1909
Partner(s): McKeen, George K.
Directory Sources: McAlpine's Nova Scotia Directory, 1890-1897, p. 287, 1218, 1222, 1223; Bard's & Co's Business and Professional Directory, 1900, p. 158
Notes: Large ad, p. 1222, McAlpine's, lists sales of "Iron, Steel, Nails, Glass, Paints, Varnishes, Oils, Carpenters' Tools, Carriage Stock, Groceries, Ship Chandlery, Etc. - Stationery, Toys, and Fancy Goods" at MacKeen, Moore, & Co. Sydney and North Sydney locations are noted. George K. McKeen and Clement P. Moore are the proprietors of MacKeen, Moore & Co. See individual entries under their names. McKeen is spelled "McKeen" in George McKeen's individual listing in McAlpine's and "MacKeen" in the listings of the company. Bards listing states "bookseller, stationer, hardware" only.

Acknowledgements

The editorial team for the development of this database (2000 - 2008):

Fiona A. Black and Bertrum H. MacDonald, Editors

The late Peter Isaac, of the British Book Trade Index, offered very helpful input during the planning stages of this database. Elizabeth Hulse and Yvan Lamonde shared information for Toronto and Montreal respectively.

The editors would like to thank all members of the HBiC/HLIC team. Research assistants Errin Armstrong, M.J. D'Elia, Chuck Erlichman, Francesca Frati, Shely Henry, Elise Moore, and Shain Widdifield prepared and edited records for inclusion in the CBTLI. Marcus Leja and Rhonda Miller were responsible for database design and development and provided technical support. Sophie Regalado prepared a draft of the Data Entry Manual, aided by Judy Donnelly.


Getting Started with the Basic Search

Use the Basic Search to easily search the Canadian Book Trade and Library Index using names or keywords.

Use the Name text-entry box to find personal or organization names in the following fields:

  • Name
  • Variant Name Form(s)
  • Firm(s)/Institution(s)
  • Family Member(s) in Trade
  • Business Succession
  • Partner(s)
  • Apprentice(s)/Trainee(s)
  • Trade Contact(s)

Use the Keywords text-entry box to search the following fields:

  • Book Trade Role(s)/Date(s)
  • Non-Book Trade Role(s)
  • Province/Territory/District
  • Town
  • Notes

Search for a name:

  1. Type a personal or organization name into the text-entry box labelled "Name".
  2. To find a personal name, just one name can be entered or if you know the first and last name, enter the last name followed by a comma and the first name or initial such as Smith, J. or Smith, Jessie.
  3. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Search for a keyword:

  1. Type the keyword into the text-entry box labelled "Keywords".
  2. Enter a single word, or a phrase exactly as you would expect to find it in the database such as Bookseller or Fancy Goods Dealer.
  3. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Search both name and keyword:

  1. Type a personal or organization name into the text-entry box labelled "Name".
  2. Type the keyword or phrase into the text-entry box labelled "Keywords".
  3. When both names and keywords are used, each record in the search results will contain both the name and the keyword.
  4. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Advanced Search

Overview

The Advanced Search permits sophisticated searching of up to eight (8) fields simultaneously.

Enter search words into the text-entry boxes, select field name(s) and Boolean operator(s) from the pull-down lists, then click the "Search" button to get the results from the database. Use the "Clear Form" button to remove text from the text-entry boxes and start a new search.

The "Help" link will open this documentation that explains the various aspects of the database and how the search interfaces can be used. The "Authority Lists" link contains the various authority lists that have been used in the construction of this database.


Field Names

Each record in the database consists of up to 44 fields describing the subject of the record. Visit the Field Descriptions section for a list of the field names and an explanation of what is contained in each field.

The names of the searchable fields are listed in the pull-down lists of the Advanced Search. To search any of these fields, type the search text into one of the text-entry boxes and select the appropriate field name from the pull-down list beside the text-entry box. For example, to find records of people or organizations who conducted operations in a particular town:

  1. Enter the name of the town, such as "Regina", into one of the text-entry boxes.
  2. Select "Town" from the list of field names beside the text-entry box.
  3. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Boolean Operators

The Advanced Search uses Boolean operators to facilitate searching up to eight (8) fields in different combinations. There are two (2) Boolean operators: AND and OR.

  1. AND
    Combine two or more terms using AND to retrieve records that contain all the specified terms. For example, to find records for individuals or organizations who were both Newspaper Publishers and Printers:
  1. Enter "Newspaper publisher" into the first text-entry box and select "Book Trade Role(s)" from the list of field names.
  2. Select "AND" from the list of Boolean operators.
  3. Enter "Printer" into the second text-entry box and select "Book Trade Role(s)" from the list of field names.
  4. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.
  1. OR
    Combine two or more terms using OR to retrieve records that contain either one or more of the specified terms. For example, to find records for individuals or organizations who were either Newspaper Publishers or Printers, or both:
  1. Enter "Newspaper publisher" into the first text-entry box and select "Book Trade Role(s)" from the list of field names.
  2. Select "OR" from the list of Boolean operators.
  3. Enter "Printer" into the second text-entry box and select "Book Trade Role(s)" from the list of field names.
  4. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Truncation

Truncation allows searching for different forms of a word by using a symbol to represent one or more letters.

The truncation symbol is the asterisk ( * ).

Right truncation: Use the truncation symbol at the end of a word or part of a word, to retrieve words that all begin with the same root, but may end with any combination of letters. For example, book* will retrieve: "books", "bookseller", and "bookbinder".

Internal truncation: Use the truncation symbol in the middle of a word if the letters in the middle are not always the same. For example, photo*pher will retrieve: "photographer" and "photoengraver".


Searching for Book Trade Roles

Each record in the database has a field for Book Trade Role(s) that describe the subject's involvement in the book trade. All the terms used in this field are in the Book Trade Role authority list which is available here in the Field Descriptions section. The authority list can also be viewed using the "Authoity Lists" link on the Advanced Search page.

Search for Book Trade Roles using the Basic Search by entering the appropriate term (e.g., Stenographer) into the text-entry box labelled "Keywords." Then click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Book Trade Roles can also be searched using the Advanced Search. The list of Book Trade Roles that are used in this database are listed in a pull-down list. To find records matching one of the terms, select it from the pull-down list then click the "Submit" button. For example, to find records for subjects who worked as Bookstore managers:

  1. Select "Bookstore manager" from the Book Trade Roles pull-down list.
  2. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

The Advanced Search also allows searching for more than one Book Trade Role by using the Book Trade Role pull-down list in combination with one of the text-entry boxes. For example, to find records for subjects who were both Stationers and Bookbinders:

  1. Type "Stationer" into one of the text-entry boxes and select "Book Trade Role(s)" from the list of field names.
  2. Select "AND" as the Boolean operator.
  3. Select "Bookbinder" from the Book Trade Role pull-down list.
  4. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Searching for Non-Book Trade Roles

Many subjects in this database have Non-Book Trade Role(s) that describe the subject's business activities outside the book trade. All the terms used in this field are in the Non-Book Trade Role(s) authority list which is available here in the Field Descriptions section. The authority list can also be viewed using the "Authoity Lists" link on the Advanced Search page.

Search for Non-Book Trade Roles using the Basic Search by entering the appropriate term (e.g., Grocer) into the text-entry box labelled "Keywords." Then click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Non-Book Trade Roles can also be searched using the Advanced Search. The list of Non-Book Trade Roles that are used in this database are listed in a pull-down list. To find records matching one of the terms, select it from the pull-down list then click the "Submit" button. For example, to find records for subjects who were Clergy members:

  1. Select "Clergy" from the Non-Book Trade Roles pull-down list.
  2. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

The Advanced Search also allows searching for more than one Non-Book Trade Role by using the Non-Book Trade Role pull-down list in combination with one of the text-entry boxes. For example, to find records for subjects who were both Druggists and Fancy Goods Dealers:

  1. Type "Druggist" into one of the text-entry boxes and select "Non-Book Trade Role(s)" from the list of field names.
  2. Select "AND" as the Boolean operator.
  3. Select "Fancy Goods Dealer" from the Non-Book Trade Role pull-down list.
  4. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Searching both Book Trade Roles and Non-Book Trade Roles

The Advanced Search also allows searching for Book Trade Roles and Non-Book Trade Role simultaneously. For example, to find records for subjects who were either sellers of printed music or sellers of musical instruments:

  1. Select "Music seller" from the Book Trade Roles pull-down list.
  2. Select "OR" as the Boolean operator.
  3. Select "Musical instrument seller/maker" from the Non-Book Trade Role pull-down list.
  4. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Searching for Province/Territory/District

Each record in the database has been asssigned a geographic term to describe the Province, Territory or District in which the subject engaged in book trade activity. All the terms used in this field are in the Province/Territory/District authority list which is available here in the Field Descriptions section. The authority list can also be viewed using the "Authoity Lists" link on the Advanced Search page.

Search for a Province, Territory, or District using the Basic Search by entering the appropriate term (e.g., Alberta) into the text-entry box labelled "Keywords." Then click the "Submit" button to search the database.

The Province/Territory/District field can also be searched using the Advanced Search. The list of terms used in this field are listed in a pull-down list. To find records matching one of the terms, select it from the pull-down list then click the "Submit" button. For example, to find records for subjects who operated in the area of New France:

  1. Select "New France" from the Province/Territory/District pull-down list.
  2. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

The Advanced Search also allows searching for more than one Province, Territory, or District by using the Province/Territory/District pull-down list in combination with one of the text-entry boxes. For example, to find records for subject who operated in either Nova Scotia or Prince Edward Island:

  1. Type "Nova Scotia" into one of the text-entry boxes and select "Province/Territory/District" from the list of field names.
  2. Select "OR" as the Boolean operator.
  3. Select "Prince Edward Island" from the Province/Territory/District pull-down list.
  4. Click the "Submit" button to search the database.

Search Results

Viewing

To view the results of a search, enter the search terms in either the Basic or the Advanced Search then click the "Submit" button. A list of records matching the search terms will be displayed. Each record in the list is called a "hit".

For each record, the list of hits shows the subject's name, one book trade role, and the subject's location. If the search produces more than 20 hits, the results will be displayed on subsequent pages that can be accessed by clicking Next. Similarly, clicking Previous will return to the previous page of hits. There is an option to display 20, 30, or 50 hits per page.

To see the details about a particular record, click Full Display. This will show all the fields for that record. If a record does not contain any data in a particular field, that field will not be displayed with the record.


Search Tips

Searches are not case sensitive

This means that uppercase and lower case letters are considered the same. A search for Nova Scotia Printing Co will produce the same results as a search for nova scotia printing co or NoVA scoTIA prinTINg co.

Searching for a phrase

Although no distinction is made between uppercase and lowercase letters, spacing and punctuation are not ignored. Searching for a phrase will find records only if they exactly match the phrase in these ways: the words must be in the same order, punctuation must be the same, and spacing between words and punctuation must be the same.

For example, searching for Paper mill owner will produce different results than Owner of paper mill. If a complete phrase is not known, partial phrases can be used.

Expanding a search

If a search finds very few or no matching records, the search terms need to be expanded. A search can be expanded by using less specific terms. For example, rather than searching for Foreman, newsroom, search for just Foreman. This may help to find more matching records.

Narrowing a search

If a search produces too many results, the search needs to be narrowed. This is done by making the search terms more specific. For example, to find records for public libraries, just searching for library in the Book Trade Role(s) field may be too broad. Search for library, public to make the search more specific and find fewer records.

Unsupported features

This database does not support some search features.

  1. Quotation marks (e.g., "dry goods dealer") should not be used for phrase searching. The quotation marks are not necessary; the search engine will always look for an exact phrase match when two (2) or more words are entered in a single text-entry box.
  2. No proximity operators are supported for searching this database.
  3. No Search History is available when searching this database.