"The cattle, which previously we had the greatest trouble to get the Indians to take in charge, are now earnestly sought after, and on reserves where cattle are not driven off to winter quarters, are stabled and looked after by the individual owners; and although we have lost this year by prairie fires in the vicinity of twenty-five hundred loads, yet the Indians set to work to replace it; and I am pretty sure that we will be able to winter all our Indian cattle on the reserves.
"A marked improvement in the mode of housekeeping by the women is noticeable - raised beds, chairs and tables, dishes and cooking utensils properly put away, instead of, as before, strewn about the house, and I think it is apparent to any unbiassed mind that great advancement is being made in the ways of Civilized life."
The agent at Touchwood Hills states: -
"They have all improved morally. I have not heard the slightest rumour of any drunkenness or unseemly conduct during the past season, for which this band was noted in the past."
In evidence of individual progress under the department's policy, the following may be quoted from a recent report by Mr. Chief Inspector Wadsworth on his inspection of the Edmonton Agency: -
"Beaver Foot is a full-blooded Indian, and is the most advanced farmer on the reserve (of Alexander's Band). He is a young man, has a family of: himself, wife, one son and one daughter; his farm is a regularly improved homestead, after the fashion of a well-to-do, industrious white farmer; his buildings are all constructed of well-made square timber, and are as follows: dwelling-house, milk-house, pig-house, shed for implements, three stables, two cattle-sheds; three well-fenced corrals calf, sheep and pig pastures; 1,000 acres fenced as a cattle and horse pasture his hay meadows are also fenced to prevent cattle from grazing on them; his live-stock are: two oxen, three cows, five steers, twelve large, good work horses; his implements are: mower and rake, farm wagon, breaking-plough, cross-plough, iron harrows, whip-saw, grindstone, land roller, ox yoke, ox harness, two sets horse team harness, two bob-sleighs, crosscut saw, logging-chain, augers, axes, hay-forks, saws, hammers, spade, scoop and other shovels, hoes; his house is comfortably furnished with cooking-stove, tables, chairs, bedsteads, churn, milk-pans, & c. Beaver Foot came to settle down on the reserve in 1889, owning then only a team of ponies. The agent lent him a yoke of oxen and a cow, but no implements, so that his present possessions are the result of economics and careful industry. His fences are strong and straight, of tamarack stakes and spruce rails. When I was at his place he was engaged in bauling rails with one of his large, horse teams and strewing them along where he intended to build this new fence. His character is that he is reliable - 'his word is his bond'; would that there were more like him. I had almost forgotten to mention his crops. They consist of ten acres of wheat, ten acres of oats, ten acres of barley, one acre of potatoes and one acre of garden-total, thirty-two acres."
The stage of development evidenced in the case just quoted is, of course, exceptional, but nevertheless shows what the policy of the department may effect when earnestly adopted by any of its wards.
The following case, taken front a report made by Mr. Inspector McGibbon of a recent inspection of the Cumberland Band at Fort à la Corne, is an example of a condition of affairs which is by no means singular in the North-west Territories: -
"George Sanderson, No. 97, has a nice, thrifty-looking place, good stables, has 39 head of cattle; 13 calves were in one corral; cattle in good shape - best of feed and water; makes butter; has a new house, with a good cellar, whitewashed inside; three acres wheat, good crop; good garden, usual variety (of roots and vegetables). Purchased doors, windows and lumber for ceiling of his new house from cattle money. A