Pacheena Reserve, Port San Juan, one hundred and fifty-three acres in extent; Pachemaht tribe; population, eighty: twenty-six men, thirty women and thirty-three children.
These Indians live in four villages on the coast at the entrance of Juan de Fuca Strait, viz.:
Tsooquahua, two hundred and thirty-five acres in extent; population, thirty-two twelve men, twelve women and eight children.
Wyah, one hundred and thirty-two acres in extent; population, sixty-nine: twenty-six men, twenty-seven women and sixteen children.
Cloo-oose, two hundred and forty-eight acres in extent; population, forty-one fifteen men, fourteen women and twelve children.
Carmanah, one hundred and fifty-eight acres in extent; population, seventeen men, seventeen women and fourteen children.
Vital Statistics. - The Indians of this agency number two thousand seven hundred and fifty: nine hundred and eighty men, one thousand and thirty-two women and seven hundred and thirty-eight children, and are slowly decreasing in number. Except on the occasion of marriage with other tribes, these Indians almost invariably stay on their own land.
Health and Sanitary Condition. - A mild form of la grippe was the only epidemic along the coast; scrofula and consumption with some cases of syphilis are the most fatal diseases among them. There is an improvement with regard to the cleanliness of their houses and they are gradually getting into a better way of living. The practice of moving away from the reserves to the fishing stations at certain times of the year keeps the villages in fair sanitary condition.
Occupation. - The principal occupation of all the able-bodied men of these tribes is sealing. Some men make their living entirely by making canoes, which are chiefly sold at home, there being a great demand for sealing canoes since that industry became general, and canoes are double the value they were when I first came on the coast, as they soon wear out and are liable to be broken on board the schooners.
The dogfish-oil industry used to be of importance, but owing to the low price and limited market, very little is made at the present time. Some canoes of West Coast Indians go to the Fraser River salmon fisheries, but since the greater demand for Indian sealers, not nearly so many as formerly. There is a small cannery in operation in Clayoquot Sound which gives some employment to Indian women. A new cannery is also built in Nootka Sound which, if successful, will also give work to the Indians in that Sound. There are four sealing schooners owned by Nitinaht Indians: "The Patchealis,""Mountain Chief,""Amateur," and "Fisher Maid." Charlie Chipps, who owns the "Fisher Maid," has a small trading store at Port San Juan on the Pacheena Reserve; there is also a store on the Chaicclesaht Reserve managed by Indian Jim, who sells goods there for the store-keeper at Kyuquot, getting a percentage on the cash taken in. Several other small schooners used for sealing on the coast are owned by Indians. One, "The Qui-impta," was entirely built by Indian Jack at Ucluelet. The Indian catch of fur-seal for the months of May and June when the Indians alone have the privilege of sealing, amounted to fifteen hundred. These with the Behring Sea catch and schooner catch on the coast, with the furs got in all the tribes, such as bear, land-otter, beaver, marten, mink, racoon and an occasional sea-otter, average in value for the year one hundred dollars for each male over the age of sixteen. Deer are found on the islands and up the sounds, and a few elk at the heads of the inlets. The hair-seal is also hunted, being a favourite article of food; and a few small whales are harpooned or cast ashore during the year, whale blubber and on being considered a great delicacy and being a marketable commodity among themselves. Halibut cut thin and dried in the sun is also an article for sale and barter. While fish is the staple article of food, the consumption of flour, sugar, canned goods and most other articles of food used by the white