Genealogy at School
5th to 8th Grades
Pack Up and Go!
[PDF 73 KB],
[RTF 885 KB]
Welcome to the Pack Up and Go! game. Find out more about the history of Canadian immigration as you match each push factor (reason for leaving a place) and pull factor (reason for choosing a place) with the correct time period.
For each time period, write the number that corresponds with each push or pull factor as appropriate. To help you, read the clues for each time period.
Clues - Time periods
- The French were the first Europeans to build permanent settlements in Canada. At the end of this period, New France consisted of about 65,000 people.
- About 40,000 United Empire Loyalists arrived in Canada following the conquest of New France and the American Revolutionary War.
- About 800,000 British immigrants arrived in Canada. Most settled south of the Canadian Shield where they farmed, built towns and started industries.
- Canada's population doubled during this time.
- For the first time, a large number of non-British and non-French settlers came to Canada. More than 700,000 came from the United States and over 500,000 from Eastern Europe.
- After the First World War, immigration decreased markedly. After the Great Depression, a large number of Canadians moved to the United States in search of jobs.
- Immigration was again encouraged after the Second World War. More than two million immigrants came to Canada.
- Canada's immigration policy became more open and many refugees were allowed into Canada.
- Canadian society became more multicultural, with people from all over the world immigrating to Canada.
- The new Immigration and Refugee Protection Act recognizes the many contributions that immigrants and refugees make to Canada. It also enforces strict security measures.
Push and Pull Factors
- Canada made it easier for refugees to immigrate. Major changes were made to Canada's immigration policies including the introduction of a "point system."
- Great Britain offered the United Empire Loyalists free land in Canada and supplies for two years.
- Almost half of the immigrants settled in the West. Canada became more selective in its immigration policy. It raised the Head Tax to $500 and passed the "No Stoppage Rule" to keep out people from South Asia.
- People had their homes and farms destroyed during the First World War.
- Immigrants started to arrive by air and by sea. The population of Southern Europeans grew, especially in the cities.
- English, Welsh, Irish and Scottish emigrants fled poverty and famine. Hundreds of thousands of Irish emigrants left their country because of the Great Potato Famine.
- More than 44,000 Loyalists settled in the colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Ontario and Quebec. There were about 5,000 Aboriginal Loyalists.
- Conflicts in regions like Hungary, Yugoslavia and Vietnam resulted in a large population of war refugees.
- The Minister of the Interior, Clifford Sifton, encouraged American and European immigrants by advertising and offering free land in the Canadian West.
- The government was still advertising for farmers to settle in the West. Before the Depression, some industries such as the railways were in search of workers.
- People left France because there wasn't enough land for everyone. Men were also sent as military to defend the colony. Women were sent as "girls to be married" by the King of France.
- Immigrant ships became known as "coffin ships." Quarantine stations such as Grosse Île were set up to stop the spread of diseases such as cholera and typhus. Many Irish children were orphaned.
- Forty-four percent of new immigrants came from Asia during this time period. Most immigrants chose to live in Canada's largest cities, especially Toronto.
- Many Chinese and Irish laborers worked to completethe Canadian Pacific Railway. After the railway was completed, the "Head Tax" was introduced to discourage Chinese immigration.
- People left Europe to escape high rents and taxes. People in Russia fled from religious persecution and those from the Ukraine, Norway and Finland left because of poor farming conditions.
- Communist governments crushed political opposition and dictators like Idi Amin in Uganda expelled many people from their countries. At least 32,000 Americans left their country to avoid fighting in the Vietnam War.
- Canada created a Multiculturalism Act , which encouraged people from all over the world to come to Canada.
- The British government encouraged immigration to Canada by giving free ship travel, land grants and tools for working the land.
- Canada suffered severely in the Depression and many people were unemployed. Immigration restrictions were placed on people of Asian, Black and Jewish heritage.
- There was much unemployment in Europe; Black people left the United States to escape from slavery; and the British government sent their "Home Children" to Canada.
- Immigrants choose to come to Canada for many different reasons. For example, they have family members living here; they have labour skills that are in demand; or they are seeking good business opportunities.
- Immigrants learned from the Aboriginal Peoples about new foods, new means of transportation, how to live in winter and how to cure scurvy. Early immigrants received land in the seigneuries. Some of them worked in the fur trade.
- The Underground Railroad helped about 30,000 slaves escape to Canada; the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway made travel easier; the gold rushes enticed adventurers.
- Discrimination based on race, religion, colour and creed was officially ended.
- People from France came to Canada to be fur traders, farmers, soldiers, missionaries and brides.
- Refugees from all over the world want to escape war, famine, poverty and political change or persecution.
- Canada's economy really started to boom. Canada accepted over 100,000 refugees from war-torn Europe.
- United Empire Loyalists in the 13 colonies were persecuted because they wanted to remain British. Runaway slaves and Aboriginal Peoples fought for the British and left with the Loyalists.
- Citizenship and Immigration Canada has created a guide to help potential immigrants prepare to emigrate and to make a new life in Canada.
- Many people left Europe to escape the devastation of the Second World War.