In order to determine if one of your ancestors was of Native origin, you should first compile a Family Tree. Census indicate each individual's ethnic origin. Some mention of Aboriginal individuals can be found in Parish Registers, Land, Military Records and Publications.
Research at Library and Archives Canada
Library and Archives Canada holds records of the Department of Indian Affairs (RG 10) dating mainly from the late 1800s. The records are usually arranged by band, agency and district.
For information about searching Native ancestry, we recommend the following:
Native Soldiers - Foreign Battlefields
An ongoing project to identify Inuit people represented in Library and Archives Canada's collections of photographs.
ARCHIVED - Red and Black Series
Treaties, Surrenders and Agreements
Research in Published Sources
Tracing your Aboriginal Ancestors in the Prairie Provinces: A Guide to the Records and How to Use Them, edited by Laura M. Hanowski, published by the Saskatchewan Genealogical Society, 2006.
Research in Other Institutions
For Newfoundland and Labrador, consult the Aboriginal Ancestry [www.therooms.ca/archives/aboriginal_ancestry.asp] page on the Web site of the Rooms Provincial Archives Division.