As Newfoundland did not become a province of Canada until 1949, it was not included in the Canadian census returns of 1851 to 1911. Only a few local census returns have survived for some areas of the province.
Labrador was enumerated in the Census of Canada, 1871 (Quebec, Labrador District) and in the Census of Canada, 1911 (Northwest Territories, Labrador Sub-district).
A census was taken in Newfoundland in 1921, 1935 and 1945. Those records are in the custody of the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Research at Library and Archives Canada
Microfilm copies of the 1921, 1935 and 1945 provincial census records are also available at Library and Archives Canada.
Volunteers are indexing the returns for 1921, 1935 and 1945. Completed indexes are searchable online on the Newfoundland Grand Banks Genealogy Site [http://ngb.chebucto.org/census.shtml]. That Web site also includes indexes to the few early census records that include names.