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Louis Riel, the Red River Rebellion and the North West Campaign

Photograph of Louis Riel, a prisoner in the camp of Major-General F.D. Middleton, circa May 16, 1885

This guide consists of specific archival references and other sources of information relate to Louis Riel, the Red River Rebellion of 1870 and the North West Campaign of 1885. Section 1 includes records relating to Louis Riel, such as case files, correspondence and records on his mental health and his trial. Section 2 consists of records dealing with the Red River Rebellion, such as military orders and instructions and records concerning military personnel. Finally, Section 3 contains records on the North West Campaign, such as letters of the Minister of Militia and War Claims Commission records.

This guide was revised in February 2001.

1. Louis Riel

Born in 1844 in Red River, Manitoba and brought up in St. Boniface, Louis Riel became the National Secretary for the Métis in the Red River Colony as of 1869 and President of the provisional government in 1870. Elected to the House of Commons in 1874, Riel was expelled and then subsequently banned from the country in the same year. His return in 1884 prompted the creation of a new provisional government (of which Batoche was the capital), which in turn ultimately fuelled the North West Rebellion. Captured in May 1885, Riel was tried and sentenced to hang for treason. He was executed in Regina on November 16, 1885.

Government Records

Records of the Privy Council (RG 2)

P.C.O. despatches, vol. C, 1873-1874
(RG 2, series A2a)
Manitoba/Morris, encloses document -, 3 Jan, 73 & signed Louis Riel & Lepine... on Red River... 1869-70
(RG 2, vol. 5371, file 66)
P.C.O. despatches, vol. D, 1875-1878
(RG 2, series A2a)
Steps for expulsion of Louis Riel, April 6, 1875
(RG 2, vol. 5378, file 108)
Amnesty Proclamation, Red River, 1869-1870, August 23, 1875
(RG 2, vol. 5379, file 254/75/227)
Gabriel Dumont, Blake Report, December 28, 1875
(RG 2, vols. 5379 and 5380, file 276/332/835/75, N.W.T.)
Murderer of Thomas Scott, Manitoba, July 15, 1876 and July 27, 1876
(RG 2, vol. 5381, file 517/528)
Rebellion in N.W.T.; arms from U.S.A., April 2, 1885
(RG 2, vols. 5413 and 5414, file 796/806)
Louis Riel's appeal; report of Judicial Committee of the P.C., October 28, 1885
(RG 2, vol. 5419, file 1038/2035/2050)

Orders in Council, Privy Council Office (when these are available)

P.C.O. 1314, Riel, Louis; defence of application for aid, Riel Defence Committee, confirmed July 20, 1885
(RG 2, vol. 3102)
P.C.O. 1743, F.X. Lemieux & C has. Fitzpatrick with petition for leave to appeal case of L. Riel to the Privy Council, confirmed September 26, 1885
(RG 2, vol. 3106)
P.C.O. 2158, Capital Case; Sheriff Chapleau's telegram regarding execution of L. Riel; sentence of death carried out; receipt: November 16, 1885
(RG 2, vol. 3109)
P.C.O. 1587, petitions regarding the case of Louis Riel, International Arbitration & Peace Association, London, August 15, suggesting remission of death sentence against Riel et al; receipt: August 21, 1885
(RG 2, vol. 3104)
P.C.O. despatches, vol. F, 1883-1885, series A2a

Records of the Department of the Secretary of State (RG 6)

The Department of the Secretary of State at this time was also responsible for Indian Affairs and Northern Affairs.

Draught of proclamation respecting Ambroise Lépine and Louis Riel, 1875
(RG 6, vol. 21, file 609)
Minister of Justice; transmits Order in Council declining interference on petition of Archbishop of St. Boniface for full pardon of Ambroise Lepine, 1875
(RG 6, vol. 23, file 1201)
Order in Council granting an unconditional pardon to Ambroise Lépine regarding 1869 Rebellion in Manitoba, 1886
(RG 6, vol. 65, file 22227)

Miscellaneous Government Documents Linked to Riel

General correspondence of the Secretary of State, 1867-1872
(in RG 6)

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Records of the Office of the Governor General (RG 7)

The Office of the Governor General kept records on almost all subjects of which one was Louis Riel.

Archbishop of St. Boniface to the Minister of Justice, petition for the pardon of Ambroise Lépine, October 25, 1875
(RG 7 G20, vol. 134, file 4235)

Miscellaneous Government Documents Linked to Riel

Despatch of the Colonial Office, 1868-1873 and 1883-1886
(RG 7 G1, indexes are in vols. 410-412, 430 and 431)
Secret and confidential despatches from the Colonial Office, 1867-1886
(RG 7 G3, vols. 1-20)
Miscellaneous files, 1869-1885
(RG 7 G18, vols. 23-26A, 87)

Records of the Department of Justice (RG 13)

The Department of Justice kept records on all the legal aspects of Louis Riel's life.

Series B1, Capital Case Files for Louis Riel, 1941 and 1959

(RG 13, vol. 1421 and 1422, file 202A, pts. 1-3, 1885, finding aids 13-8 and 13-39)
Correspondence, petitions, transcript of evidence (trial and appeal), scrapbook of newspaper clippings, surgeon's reports and other information.

Series F2, records relating to Louis Riel and the Northwest Uprising, 1873-1886

(RG 13, series F2, vols. 804-825 and 2132, reels C-1228 to C-1231 for vols. 804 and 805, finding aid 13-22)
Material consists of correspondence, memoranda, notes, various drafts of poems, prayers and other Riel papers; also notes, warrants, charges, statements and briefs of evidence, magistrate's reports, and an account book of witness expenditures (1885). Many of the documents in this series were among Riel's private papers seized at Batoche on May 11, 1885. Other documents and Riel document in vol. 2132 were part of the Department of Justice records containing Riel material for the period May 1885-December 1886.

Series A2: Central Registry, 1845-1959

There are also some scattered references to files relating to Riel and the rebellions in the Central Registry Series of the Department of Justice, which may be located through the use of ArchiviaNet.
(RG 13, series A2, , vols. 1-413, 416, 418, 1856-2029, 2032, 2113-2130, 2133-2367 and 3112, finding aid 13-2)

Correspondence Directly Linked to Riel (letters to or from Louis Riel)

Correspondence of 1885: C. Fitzpatrick, L. Riel, F.X. Lemieux, G.W. Burbidge, Henry Howard, T.C. Johnstone, D.L. Scott, R.B. Deane and J.N. Greenshields
(RG 13, vol. 807, files 955, 956, 962-964,1034, 1035, 1128, 1229, 1491, 1556, 1643, 1644 and 1671A, reel C-1228)
Riel letter
(RG 13, series B2, vol. 814)

Riel's Mental Health

Admission and Discharge of Louis Riel to and from Beauport Asylum, Quebec
(RG 13 B2, vol. 2 , pp. 216-218)

Records of the Department of Interior (RG 15)

The Department of the Interior (1873-1936) was the federal agency responsible for the administration of western land settlement.

Miscellaneous Government Documents Linked to Riel

Petition file to the Governor General
(RG 15, vol. 335, file 83808)
Secretary of State requesting all papers relating to the grievance of Half Breeds, the agitation under Riel and to the employees of the Government of the North West, 1885
(RG 15, vol. 340, file 87976)

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Selected Private Records

Correspondence Directly Linked to Riel (letters to or from Louis Riel)

Louis Riel Papers (F)
(MG 27 IF3, reels C-4596, M-2170 and M-2171)
The letters published in Sessional Papers
(A.-P. Caron Papers,MG 27 ID3, 9475)

Correspondence Pertaining to Riel (from politicians, from the military and various individuals)

Correspondence 1885; J.A. Macdonald, F.X. Lemieux and C. Fitzpatrick
(MG 26 A, vol. 107, reel C-1524)
Telegrams by Minister A.-P. Caron concerning Riel (F)
(MG 27 I D3, vol. 199, pp. 421-432 and 460)
Copy of a letter by A.-P. Caron defending his stand regarding Riel trial (F)
(MG 27 I D3, Caron Papers, 7681)
Offer by John Fennessy (and partner) to capture Riel under certain conditions (F)
(MG 27 I D3, A.-P. Caron Papers, 5971)
George Brown Papers
(MG 24 B40, pp. 2239-2254, new archival reference R2634-0-9-E, finding aid 21)
J.A. Macdonald Papers
(MG 26 A, vols. 101-110, reels C-1523, C-1524 and B-1552, finding aid 535)
Alexander Mackenzie Papers
(MG 26 B, finding aid 108)
Sir Wilfrid Laurier Papers (F)
(MG 26 G, finding aid 91)
Carnarvon Papers
(MG 40 C14, vols. 43 and 45, reel B-1067)
A.-P. Caron Papers (F)
(MG 27 I D3, vols. 2164-2166, 2192 and 2193, reel C-1654, finding aid 742)
J.-A. Chapleau Papers (F)
(MG 27 I C3, finding aid 491)
Edgar Dewdney Papers
(MG 27 I C4, vols. 1-7, new archival reference number R4505-0-2E, finding aid 56)
Dufferin Papers, Earl of
(MG 27 I B3, vol. 1, reel A-420)
Granville Papers
(MG 27 I A3, vol. 57, reel B-895, new archival reference number R4484-0-1-E)
Louis Riel Papers (F)
(MG 27 I F3, reels C-4596, M-2170 and M-2171, finding aid 535)
Augustus Jukes Papers
(MG 29 E66, reel M-1614)
J.-H. Langevin Papers (F)
(MG 29 C44)
Lisgar Papers
(MG 27 I B2, new archival reference number R4679-0-8-E, finding aid 127)
Minto Papers
(MG 27 II B1, finding aid 115)
William McDougall Papers
(MG 27 I C6, vol. 1, new archival reference number R4506-0-X-E, finding aid 197)
Thomas Spence Papers
(MG 29 E2, reel C-1343)
J.-I. Tarte Papers (F)
(MG 27 II D16, vols. 2 and 18, finding aid 539)
James W. Taylor Papers
(MG 27 I H2, reels M-115 to M-117, M-120 to M-122 and M-273, new archival reference number R4559-0-2-E)
F.-X. Valade Papers
(MG 27 I J8)
Wolseley (Sir Garnet Joseph) Family Papers
(MG 29 E53, reel A-672)

Miscellaneous Documents Linked to Riel

Correspondence, Colonial Office, 1867-1872 and 1884-1886:
  • (MG11, C.O. 42, vols. 662-714 and 777-789, reels B-481 to B-525 and B-612 to B-622;)
  • (MG 11, C.O. 335, vols. 7-9, reels B-1629, B-1630, B-1633 and B-1634; and)
  • (MG 11, C.O. 537, vols. 7, 43 and 44, reels B-1561 and B-1562.)
Colonial Office confidential prints
(MG 11, C.O. 880, vols. 7, 43 and 44, reels B-1561 and B-1562)

Riel's Mental Health

Copy of the medical report on the mental condition of Riel based on examination while he was in prison at Regina, 1885. Letter from Sir John A. Macdonald instructing doctors to report on Riel's mental state, 1885
(MG 27, I J8)
Medical report of Doctor Juke
(MG 26 A, vol. 106, pp. 42631-42641)
Medical report of Dr. Valade:
  • MG 27 I J8; and
  • MG 26 A, vol. 106, pp. 42650 and 42651.
Report by those engaged upon enquiry into Riel's mental condition (F) (November 9, 1885)
(MG 27 I D3, A.-P. Caron Papers Misc., "Misc. letters to Caron" folder)
Canadian Psychiatric Association
(MG 28 II 68)

Riel's Trial

Regarding feelings towards Riel and his trial (F)
(MG 27 I D3, A.-P. Caron Papers, private letters, letter 7501 onward)

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2. Red River Rebellion, 1870

On December 1, 1869, the Hudson's Bay Company sold the territory of Rupert's Land to Canada. This led the local inhabitants, the Métis, to take a stand against the arrival of government surveyors and eager settlers. On November 2, 1869, Louis Riel, the Métis leader, and an armed party took possession of Fort Gary, and subsequently imprisoned several opposing Canadians and English-speaking Half Breeds. On December 8, 1869, Riel issued a proclamation that refused any form of annexation to Canada and defended the right to self-government. Riel arranged to have Thomas Scott, an Orangeman, executed, an action which provoked a call for revenge from Ontario Orangemen. Despite the passage, on May 15, 1870, of a law creating the new province of Manitoba and guaranteeing that Métis lands would remain untouched, the federal government still proceeded to send military troops to dislodge the Métis rebels at Fort Garry. Commanded by General Wolseley, these troops, essentially composed of Ontario militiamen, finally arrived at Fort Gary on August 23, 1870, only to find that Riel and his companions had already fled to the United States.

Government Records

There are some documents pertaining to the Red River Rebellion and the North West Campaign in the records of the Deputy Minister of Militia and Defence Office and the Adjutant-General's Office. These records have not often revealed their full potential: they are not easy to use. Except for the few very specific references listed further, locating those documents generally proves to be a frustrating experience. The registers and indexes are old, with complex handwritten ledgers in often poor condition. The microfilms reflect this situation. Furthermore, to link the information from the indexes and registers to actual records, one must consult finding aids that are not user friendly. Finally, many documents listed in the indexes and registers are simply missing. Although archivists are working on solving some of these problems, the process is long and time consuming: we therefore recommend that researchers arm themselves with patience and persistence.

Records of the Department of Militia and Defence (RG 9)

The Department of Militia and Defence kept all records on the military aspects of the Red River Rebellion.

Military Orders and Instructions

Military Secretary, Montreal, 1870
(RG 9 II-B-1, vol. 6, file 7-1578, docket 444)
With an extract from a general order intended to be issued shortly, requests that it may be communicated to all officers of volunteers taking part in the Red River Expedition.
Minister of Militia; instruction for guidance of the Principal Medical Officer of Imperial Forces for examination of men for Red River, 1870
(RG 9 II-B-1, vol. 6, file 7-1578, docket 455)
Lieutenant-Colonel Jarvis, Commandant at Fort Garry, For an Authority to Engage Suitable Buildings in the Village of Winnipeg for Barracks During the Coming Winter, 1870
(RG 9 II-B-1, vol. 6, file 7-1578, docket 1114)
Militia General Orders, 1867-1894
(RG 9 II-B-3, vols. 1-14)
With an index to subjects and units. The index is in vols. 10-12.
General Orders, 1871, authorizing the formation of two batteries of garrison artillery: general and regimental Order Book, 1871-1894, School of Gunnery and "A" Battery
(RG 9 II-J-1, vol. 21)
Included are orders of the Artillery Brigade, North West Field Force, 1885-1886.

Various Documents Linked to Army Personnel

Nominal rolls and paylists, Special Forces, 1870-1902, Red River Force, 1870-1877
(RG 9 II-F-7, vols. 1-4)
Copies of correspondence and telegrams relating to the organization of the force raised for service at Red River, 1869-1871
(RG 9 II-A-3, vols. 1-2)
Apparently, the copies were prepared for a return to Parliament but were not published.
Red River Force; warrants, numbers 1-1000
(RG 9 II-A-4, vol. 18)
Red River Force; register of grants
(RG 9 II-A-4, vol. 18A)
Red River Force, 1870-1874; lists of officers recommended for service, 1870-1871; correspondence relating to bounty land, 1872-1873; and records of courts martial and return of defaulters, 1870-1873
(RG 9 II-B-2, vol. 33)
Register of service, Red River Rebellion, 1870-1877
(RG 9 II-B-4, reel T-6955)
Red River Expedition Accounts, 1870-1877; monthly statements, general expenditure, voyageurs' accounts, transportation accounts and certificates for payment, 1870-1871; current accounts of district paymasters and vouchers, 1870-1874; and supply officer accounts, 1873-1874
(RG 9 II-F-3, vols. 1-4)

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Selected Private Records

Red River Riel Rebellion; letter concerning guns in possession of the Hudson's Bay Company. (F)
(A.-P. Caron Papers, 12019)

3. The North West Campaign, 1885

Back from his exile in the United States, Riel linked up with Gabriel Dumont to hold a last great stand against the Canadian Government's plans to take over the North West. The Métis wanted to gain more sovereignty and prevent the building of the Canadian Pacific Railroad on their lands. Faced with Prime Minister Macdonald's refusal to negotiate, the Métis, along with several Indian tribes, took up arms on March 18, 1885 and launched raids against the RCMP and new settlers. To counter this uprising, Ottawa dispatched an expeditionary force lead by General Middleton, and comprised of English-speaking and French-speaking soldiers. Skirmishes and battles erupted from March through to May, at Duck Lake (Saskatchewan), Fish Creek, Cut Knife Hill and finally at Batoche on May 12, 1885. Three days later, Louis Riel surrendered, hoping to defend himself in front of the Supreme Court of Canada.

Government Records

Métis Unrest

W.L. Orde, Battleford intimating that an authentic report exists that Riel is agitating among Half Breeds, Sioux and Cree, 1880-1885.
(RG 15, vol. 341, file 89-430)

Letters of the Minister of Militia

North West Rebellion; correspondence and reports to the Minister of Militia from the Commissariat at Winnipeg, April to June 1885
(RG 9 II-A-4, vol. 24)
Deputy Minister of Militia; approval of Adjutant General's report respecting accommodation and supplies to the garrison at Fort Garry, 1870
(RG 9 II-B-1, vol. 6, file 7-1578, docket 860)
Deputy Minister of Militia and Defence's Office; correspondence, 1867-1903
(RG 9 II-A-1, vols. 1-495)
This series contains letters received and copies of the replies. There is a complete set of registers for the correspondence, on reels T-4172 to T-4181 and indexes to these registers on reels T-4170 to T-4172. The registers are organized by docket number (file number) and list the correspondent and the subject. Unfortunately, much of the actual correspondence is missing. Finding aid 9-11 contains a list allowing the researcher to link docket numbers to volume numbers. It also contains a list of all missing docket numbers.
Deputy Minister of Militia and Defence's Office; letterbooks, 1867-1903
(RG 9 II-A-1, vols. 407-478)
This series contains copies of letters sent by the Department over the Deputy Minister's signature. The letterbooks have been microfilmed. The reels for the year 1870 are T-241 and T-242. The reel for 1885 is T-251.
Deputy Minister of Militia and Defence's Office; reports and memoranda, 1867-1920
(RG 9 II-A-2, vols. 1-18)
This series contains reports prepared for submission by the Minister of Militia to the Privy Council, as well as memoranda from the Deputy Minister to the Adjutant General and other officers of the Department, 1867-1907. Most volumes to 1897 contain indexes. Reels for years 1870 and 1885 are T-268 and T-272.

Documents Linked to High Ranking Officers

Letterbooks, 1868-1903
(RG 9 II-B-1, vols. 334-469)
Adjutant General's Office and Headquarters; correspondence, 1868-1882
(RG 9 II-B-1, vols. 1-48)
Contains numbered files from October 1868 to June 1882. Most of the correspondence is missing, but there is a complete set of registers on microfilm reels T-4186 to T-4193 and indexes to the registers on microfilm reels T-4182 to T-4184.
Adjutant General's Office and Headquarters; correspondence, 1882-1903
(RG 9 II-B-1, vols. 50-298)
There is a complete set of registers on microfilm reels T-4193 to T-4220 and indexes to the registers on microfilm reels T-4184 to T-4186 and T-284 to T-377.
Unnumbered correspondence and memoranda of the Headquarters staff, 1868-1909
(RG 9 II-B-1, vol. 496)
Includes the Adjutant General, Quartermaster General, Director of Artillery and Master General of the Ordnance. In addition, there are a few letters addressed to the Military Secretary, the Minister of Militia and Deputy Adjutants General in the Military Districts.
Principal medical officer, Montreal, regarding cases of surgical instruments intended for medical officers in Red River, 1870
(RG 9 II-B-1, vol. 6, file 7-1578, docket 466)

Military Personnel

List of names of groups and individuals offering to serve in North West Field Force
(RG 9 II-A-1, vols. 220 and 221)
See: Deputy-Ministers Papers, docket A1900 and special boxes A19681/2.
Records relating to the North West Field Force, 1885
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 3)
Consists of telegrams to and from A.-P. Caron, April 1-3, 1885, regarding the despatch of the troops and the situation in the North West.
Telegrams and a few letters exchanged between officers in the North West relating to supplies and transport, troop movements and the pursuit of Big Bear.
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 3)
Abstract of ration returns, statements and accounts for the North West Field Force, copies of contracts and agreements with teamsters and lists of teamsters.
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 3)
Letterbook of the transport and supply office in Winnipeg, April 1885-February 1886
(RG 9 II-A-3, reel T-281)
Letterbook of the paymaster in Winnipeg, April-October 1885
(RG 9 II-A-3, reel T-281)
Account book for transport in the Qu'Appelle Division
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 6)
District and regimental paymasters, accounts, vouchers and receipts
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 7)
Paylists of teamsters in the Qu'Appelle and Battleford Divisions
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 8)
Lists showing the disposition of teamsters.
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 9)
Account book for teamsters attached to General Strange's Column.
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 10)
Paylists of teamsters at Troy, Battleford, Portage La Prairie and Qu'Appelle
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 11)
North West Rebellion; correspondence regarding the issuing of scrip
(RG 9 II-A-4, vol. 1)
North West Rebellion; index to pension claims
(RG 9 II-A-4, vol. 17)
Registers of recipients of the North West Canada 1885 Medal
(RG 9 II-A-5, vols. 11 and 12)
One register lists recipients who were members of the North West Field Force and the other is for the North West Mounted Police. Both registers have been microfilmed on reel C-1863. A card index to the registers and to lists of teamsters and transport officers has also been microfilmed on reels C-15729 to C-15731.
North West Field Force accounts, 1885-1887; expenditure and cash book, April 1885-1886
(RG 9 II-F-4, vols. 1 and 2)
Nominal rolls and paylists, Special Forces, 1870-1902; North West Field Force, 1885
(RG 9 II-F-7, vols. 4-9)
Records of Canadian Artillery Units at Kingston, "A" Battery and Royal School of Gunnery, 1871-1915; correspondence book, "A" Battery, North West Field Force, November 11, 1885-July 12, 1886
(RG 9 II-J-1, vol. 20)
Letterbooks, 1872-1908; included are the letterbooks for "B" Battery, North West Field Force; they have been microfilmed on reels T-454 to T-469
(RG 9 II-J-2, vols. 29-48)
Letterbook, Troy and Qu'Appelle Detachment, North West Field Force, 1885-1886, microfilm reel T-478
(RG 9 II-J-2, vol. 57)

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Surgeon General's Office

Numbered letters received in the Office of the Surgeon General in Ottawa relating to medical services for the North West Field Force
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 12)
(RG 9 II-A-3, vol. 13)
Copies of letters and telegrams sent by the Surgeon General, Dr. Darby Bergin, telegrams received by him, accounts, correspondence regarding pensions and payment of accounts, returns showing the disposition of medical stores, report by Bergin on the formation of a medical branch, report by George T. Orton, Brigade Surgeon of Middleton's Column, nominal rolls of the Field Hospital and Ambulance Corps, register of accounts received, certified and sent to the Department of Militia for payment, and index to telegrams received in the Medical Branch in April 1885.
The Surgeon General's letterbooks, April 1885-June 1886
(RG 9 II-A-3, vols. 14 and 15)

War Claims Commission

North West Rebellion; letterbooks of the War Claims Commission, September 1885-November 1886
(RG 9 II-A-4, vols. 24 and 25)
North West Rebellion; reports to the Commission
(RG 9 II-A-4, vols. 26 and 27)
North West Rebellion; records of the War Claims Commission, consisting of a record of claims numbered from 690 to 861
(RG 9 II-A-4, vol. 22)
North West Rebellion; evidence received on transport service claims
(RG 9 II-A-4, vol. 22)
North West Rebellion; index to letters received
(RG 9 II-A-4, vol. 22)
North West Rebellion; record of the proceedings of the commissioners
(RG 9 II-A-4, vol. 23)

Selected Private Records

Métis Unrest

Mention of his and Lepine's attempts to stir up the Indians, 1880 (F)
(MG 27 I D3, A.-P. Caron Papers, 9475)

4. Other Sources of Information

Library and Archives Canada of Canada

Within its collections, Library and Archives Canada holds a large number of Canadian newspapers from all time periods and from all regions, several of which relate to Louis Riel and the North West uprisings:

Online listing of documents held at Library and Archives Canada. The Library has created a Web site that pertains to well-known Canadian historical figures, of which a whole section is entirely devoted to Louis Riel, including secondary sources:

Also found on Library and Archives Canada Web site is Amicus, a comprehensive search tool that refers to over 100 documents pertaining to Louis Riel (primary and secondary sources).

The Canadian Historical Society

The Canadian Historical Society brochures that relate to Louis Riel are vols. 2 and 50. Theses brochures include a historical rundown and a bibliography.

Web Sites

Canada’s Digital Collections
This Web site leads to more than 400 other Web sites that relate to "National Treasures" from federal institutions such as Library and Archives Canada and the Canadian Museum of Civilizations. Theses Web sites present Canada’s past and the ways of life of rural and cultural communities.

The North West Resistance: (dated from January 29, 2001)
Database of the materials held by the University of Saskatchewan Libraries and the University Archives.

Thematic Guides