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[page de titre]
M. Garneau Aug. 31 10 a.m. [ note écrite à la main - Rédacteur. ]
CANADIAN COUNCIL FOR RECONSTRUCTION
|(a) Assistance to Schools||$300,000|
|(b) Assistance to Universities||$150,000|
|(c) Assistance to to Cultural Groups and Individuals||$46,250|
|(e) Book Centre||$ 50,000|
|(f) Grant to Unesco||$ 25,000|
are contained in a report of activities presented to the Government of Canada through the Department of External Affairs in May, 1949 and circulated to Unesco and to the member organizations of C.C.R.U. Copies of the afore-mentioned report are hereto annexed. This report was prepared in accordance with the terms of a resolution of Council adopted at the annual meeting held in Ottawa in May 1948.
Inasmuch as it would appear probable that most, if not all, of the Canadian organizations which have participated in the reconstruction program of C.C.R.U. will be presenting briefs on their own behalf with regard to the nature of their relationship with Unesco and on other related matters, it would appear inappropriate both for this reason and by reason of the fact that the matter has not been considered by Council, for C.C.R.U. to extend its representations beyond those included in this communication and the formal report of activities already submitted to the Government of Canada.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
(Signed) Vincent Price,
Chairman of Council
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April 11th, 1949.
The first general conference of UNESCO, held in Paris in November, 1946, called upon members states to accept a goal of $100,000,000 to create a fund for educational, scientific and cultural reconstruction in war-devastated countries throughout the world. At the moment the request program was transmitted to the Government of Canada there was not in existence (nor is there yet) any national co-ordinating body for UNESCO in Canada. In March, 1947, the Department of External Affairs suggested to the United Nations Association in Canada that this national organization might undertake to see what Canadian response through voluntary agencies might be possible. The Association was already representing to the people of Canada the interests and the activities of the United Nations and its specialized agencies; it received from the Government a small annual grant in aid, and it had within its structure an Advisory Committee on UNESCO Matters.
This Advisory Committee met in Ottawa on July 5, 1947, agreed that the needs of reconstruction within the competence of UNESCO were pressing, and decided to recommend that a meeting of interested national agencies should be convened. The United Nations Association subsequently issued invitations to some 75 organizations, some 50 of whom were represented at a meeting held at Emmanuel College, Toronto, on July 29, under the chairmanship of Major Vincent Price, K.C., then Chairman of the National Executive Committee of the United Nations Association in Canada.
This meeting elected as its provisional officers within a continuing organization, Major Price as Chairman, Senator the Honourable Thomas Vien, P.C., K.C., as Vice-Chairman, and Mr. C.F. Fraser as Chairman of the provisional Executive Committee. Nine other members were named to this Committee.
To assist the provisional organization in its initial operation, Senator Vien offered, on behalf of the Canadian United Allied Relief Fund, a loan of $10,000. Subsequently this loan was generously converted into a gift to the Canadian Council for Reconstruction through UNESCO. Also at the instance of Senator Vien, office space and secretarial assistance were provided by C.U.A.R.F. in premises at 139 1/2 Sparks Street, Ottawa, from which CCRU has since carried on the major part of its activities.
During the following three months the provisional Executive Committee met several times, drafted a constitution, and considered a whether a campaign should be conducted - either for materials, or for money, or for both - to assist in educational, scientific and cultural reconstruction. The Department of External Affairs, some time previously, had given an informal undertaking to provide out of post-UNRRA relief funds a grant of $200,000 to assist a Canadian continuing organization should one be formed.
The provisional organization met formally in Ottawa on October 23, 1947. The representatives of the 30 organizations (1) attending adopted a constitution for the organization which it was then decided should be called the Canadian Council for Reconstruction through UNESCO. The purpose of the Council was defined as -
to assist, through UNESCO and otherwise, the relief and rehabilitation of education, science and culture, at all levels, in war-devastated countries, by obtaining in
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Canada cash contributions, services, and gifts in kind, and the disposal of the same in accordance with the foregoing purposes.
The Council decided at this meeting to undertake a public campaign to raise funds for these objectives February, 1948. This month, though it left a very short time for the developing of a satisfactory campaign organization, appeared to be the only time available which would not conflict with some other nation-wide campaign.
The Council also elected an Executive Committee (2) to serve until the annual meeting in May, 1948. This Committee was charged to develop plans for a public campaign with an objective of $5,000,000 of which $3,000,000 was to be in cash, and the remainder in materials.
The grant of $200,000 offered through the Department of External Affairs was placed at the Council's disposal in December, 1947. The only condition mentioned by the Department of External Affairs was that in due course vouchers should be handed over showing the purchase in Canada of materials for "the purposes of educational, scientific and cultural reconstruction" to a total of $200,000 (3).
During December, 1949, the National Council for the United Nations Appeal for Children in Canada was formed, with particular representation from labour unions and co-operatives. This Council represented a Canadian response to the suggestion, made originally by a member of the United Nations Secretariat, that every working person in the world might contribute one day's pay towards the International Children's Emergency Fund, created as an agency under the United Nations Economic and Social Council to continue certain aid previously assured by UNRRA.
The campaign of UNAC in Canada had been planned for April, 1948. As it was obvious that two public appeals could not be undertaken within three months, and recollecting that a resolution of the UNESCO general conference in 1947 had recommended the merging of reconstruction appeals and UNAC appeals wherever possible, an agreement was entered into, under the aegis of the Department of External Affairs, by which the two organizations, CCRU and UNAC, would undertake one appeal, under the title of Canadian Appeal for Children, in February, 1948. Each organization was to retain its autonomous structure, each was to share equally the expenses of the joint campaign, but, under the terms of the agreement, CCRU was to receive 40% and UNAC 60% of the net proceeds. CCRU also undertook to spend one quarter of its funds for foods and clothing; UNAC was obligated to turn over the whole of its share of the joint campaign receipts to the United Nations for the International Children's Emergency Fund.
Two features of the campaign arising on CCRU account deserve special mention. A travelling auction of Canadian art, conducted in the principal cities of Canada, returned a net profit of $17,500. The paintings and sculptures donated to this travelling auction by Canadian artists were in themselves a substantial contribution to cultural understanding, and the proceeds formed an important part of the appeal itself.
Immediately after the meeting of October 23, 1947, the film "Hungry Minds", developed by members of the CCRU Secretariat, was produced at the National Film Board in Ottawa in the remarkably short time of six weeks. The first public showing of this film took place in
Ottawa on January 12, 1948, under the patronage of His Excellency the Governor General of Canada. This film was given the most extensive distribution ever reached by one film in Canada, and it is estimated that nearly 5,000,000 people saw it during the campaign. It has subsequently been exhibited in the United Kingdom (where it was used during a comparable appeal campaign) in France, in Australia and in New Zealand; and extensive arrangements have been entered into with United States agencies (4). The Columbia University Film Review - acknowledged as the outstanding arbiter on documentary films - gave "Hungry Minds" its highest rating.
A folder with the same title was produced during the campaign to anticipate and to answer questions how CRU proposed to spend funds subscribed by the people of Canada through the Canadian Appeal for Children. One extract may be quoted as an elaboration of the purpose of CCRU:
"Over half the world hangs the spectre of starvation, not only of the body, but also of the mind. The hunger of minds in war-devastated countries can paralyze effects towards reconstruction, for if young minds are not trained for new leadership, permanent recovery is impossible.
Wars begin in the minds of men - and the minds of children too, whose young bodies grow hungry for food and whose young minds grow warped for lack of education. Born under the nightmare of dictatorship, it is hard for them to forget the horror and despair which has surrounded their lives.
The objective of the Canadian Council for Reconstruction through UNESCO goes deeper than the giving only of educational supplies to children. Children need teachers: therefore new teachers must be trained to lead young minds. Children need doctors: therefore, medical schools must be helped to increase their output of new doctors. In short, the whole intellectual life of a country - educational, scientific, and cultural - must be restored, if the minds of the children are to be saved."
Up to the end of March, 1949, the share of total proceeds of the Canadian appeal for Children accruing to CCRU amounted to $933,226.51.
The first annual meeting of the Council (5) held at Carleton College, Ottawa, on May 28 and 29, 1948, considered the problem of allocating the funds available to CCRU in the directions of greatest need and significant use within the areas of educational, scientific and cultural reconstruction. The allocations were made in the expectation that CCRU would receive from the joint appeal one million dollars, and according to the best information which the CCRU Secretariat could obtain on short notice. During the Council meeting the proposed allocations were examined, and the revised budget allocations showed the following provisions by main categories (including supplies, food and clothing):
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|Grant to UNESCO Reconstruction Section
(To be spent in Canada for goods & services)
|Cultural Groups and Individuals||46,250|
|Educational, Scientific & Cultural
Missions & Fellowships
|Publications - including Book Centre||66,750|
|Reserved for administrative expenses
(Shipping where that cannot be obtained free, for administration, and distribution, etc. in Europe)
The Council at this meeting re-elected Major Price as Chairman and Senator Vien as Vice-Chairman, and elected the Executive Committee presently in office (6).
During the summer of 1948 Major Price, Chairman of Council, was able to visit and exchange views with the interested authorities in Belgium, Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom. Together with two other members of the Executive Committee, he attended an important meeting with heads of sections of UNESCO in Paris on July 25, 1948.
From the first planning of projects it had been apparent that a substantial measure of assistance should go to schools and to children of school age. During the Canadian Appeal for Children, charts had been widely used throughout Canada; and this use involved a commitment, which was undertaken by CCRU, to send these charts, duly filled in, with direct aid to individual classrooms in war-devastated areas. It was therefore determined to enclose one such chart in each of 20,000 boxes of basic school supplies.
The School Box Committee comprised:
|Mr. G.G. Croskery, Chairman||Mr. Frank G. Patten|
|Mr. Henri Masson||Dr. John E. Robbins|
|Rev. Father A-M. Morisset|
This committee conducted extensive investigations with manufacturers of school supplies, the King's Printer, the Ottawa Public School Board, and with individual teachers, to decide what should be included in such school boxes at the best prices obtainable. The approved list of contents was finally worked out as follows:
|Ink foolscap||1 pkg. (1000 sheets)|
|Pencil paper (Newsprint)||1 pkg. (1000 sheets 16 x 11)|
|Ink||1 pkg. (to make 1 gal.)|
|Pen points||1 gross|
|Chalk||1 gross (white); 24 sticks colored|
|Cold water paste||1 lb.|
|Coloured construction paper||1 pkg. (100 sheets of ten assorted colours)|
|A Pocketful of Canada|
|Morceaux Choisis d'Auteurs Canadiens|
|Calendar with Canadian painting by Tom Thomson|
|Reproduction of two additional paintings (Canadian)|
|Canada from Sea from Sea (5000 English, 5000 French)|
|Canada Hand Book (2,775 to fill in for Canada from Sea to Sea|
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|12 Facts Sheets on Canada (10,000 English, 10,000 French)|
|Map of Canada (2,000 only)|
|Letter signed by David C. Munroe, as President of the Canadian
Help Us Go To School Chart (CCRU-CAC)
For purchasing on the scale involved by this project, special order forms were worked out in co-operation with the Canadian Commercial Corporation. Simultaneously, negotiations were carried on to obtain assembling space and packing facilities, which, through the good offices of Messrs. Guy Tombs, Limited, in Montreal, were secured in a warehouse, at 2965 Notre Dame Street East, Montreal. Originally a grain warehouse, this floor space speedily became a hive of activity. Canadian Arsenals Limited loaned roller conveyer lines. A standard packing case was provided, of corrugated paper, waterproof lined, bound with steel straps. Before any of the 650 tons of supplies - enough to fill 28 railroad freight cars - were packed into these individual boxes, extensive tests were made with one box packed with the approved materials. This box was tested for waterproofing, dropped from a height, and generally banged around. Boxes arriving overseas, each bearing two stickers with the CCRU crest on a white maple leaf and the name "Canada", were delivered in uniformly good condition.
While the "assembly line" packing was being pushed ahead against the close of navigation in the port of Montreal, on the night of November 7 a nearby warehouse, stored with grain, caught fire. The structure, separated from the CCRU warehouse only by the width of a narrow laneway, collapsed while still ablaze over the CCRU plant. Quick action by the Montreal Fire Department in covering all the supplies inside with waterproof tarpaulins, and the Department's tenacity in fighting the flames saved the supplies from any damage by water or by fire.
The allocation of school boxes to particular countries was agreed upon after extended enquiries among agencies in the field, qualified persons who had lately been in Europe, and the Reconstruction and Education Sections of UNESCO. The informal opinions of the Department of External Affairs were also invited. The distribution list was as follows:
|D.P Children's Camp (7)||150|
In undertaking the transportation of these boxes, the CCRU interest was to secure ocean shipping either free or at minimum rates. If ordinary shipping rates had been charged, this part of the school box project would have cost, by reliable estimates, over $28,000. The missions at Ottawa of the several countries involved were anxious to co-operate in securing free shipping, but it was the consistent efforts and interest of Guy Tombs Limited which secured free ocean space from certain shipping companies (8). The actual expenditures on overseas shipping (other than ocean insurance and certain wharfage and port warden fees) has been limited to the main consignment of boxes to Poland on the last lap of their journey from Gothenburg (Sweden) to Gdynia.
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The problems of internal distribution within European countries likewise received careful attention. Distribution, to satisfy CCRU interests, had to be equitable, carried out at minimum cost, and in a manner which would ensure that letters from European recipients would come back to the Canadian classrooms from which the school charts had been forwarded. The arrangements finally settled upon were determined specially for each country; and in those countries where Canadian missions were established, the heads of mission were invited, through the Department of External Affairs, to exercise a discretionary power and to use every opportunity for the identification of these supplies as gifts from the children of Canada. These arrangements may be summarized as follows:
- for countries in which Canadian missions are established:
|Belgium||Ministry of Education|
|Greece||Ministry of Education and Greek Red Cross|
|Italy||Ministry of Education and Italian Red Cross|
|Netherlands||Ministry of Education|
|Poland||Ministry of Education in cooperation with American Friends Service Committee.|
- for countries to which no Canadian Mission is accredited:
|Austria||Ministry of Education|
|Ethiopia||Ministry of Education, with particular supervision being given by the Director of Provincial Education, who is a Canadian citizen.|
|Malta||Ministry of Education, with assistance being given by Canada House and the United Kingdom Colonial Office.|
|Germany||CRALOG and the American Friends Service Committee.|
In Germany, direct supervision by the Canadian mission in Berlin of distribution outside the Berlin area was impracticable because of the present restrictions on movements to and from the former German capital. Canadian officials were, however, present at a number of ceremonies. In Germany the co-operation of the American Friends Service Committee was helpful in directing the return correspondence to Canada. Supplies for Displaced Persons Camps were handled by the International Refugee Organization.
The official acknowledgements of the arrival of the school boxes and of the manner in which distribution is being carried out have been at once heartwarming and reassuring. The only cost to CCRU for overseas distribution has been a charge incurred for freight from Trieste to Vienna (something under $250). This shipment, unloaded under British military supervision at Trieste and carried by military train to Vienna, avoided the extensive losses by pilfering which had befallen earlier relief shipments consigned by other agencies to Austria.
The retail value of the contents of a school box is approximately $26.15. The cost of the contents in Canada has worked out to $9.63; plus Canadian freight, .28 1/2, Canadian packing $1.45, Overseas freight and insurance .31, making a total cost of $11.67 1/2.
While no accurate comparison can be made, it may be mentioned that CARE, an organization sending supplies on a regular basis and guaranteeing delivery, has been able to offer for $10 a retail value of $10 laid down overseas. CCRU has considerably bettered this ratio, but it has been able to do so only because of the good offices of the Department of External Affairs and full co-operation by manufacturers, by Guy Tombs Limited, operators of the packing plant, by the ocean shippers and by the countries themselves doing the actual distribution. It is doubtful whether the project could be repeated for the same price; it certainly could not be operated on a continuing basis without considerably greater expenses for provisioning, shipment and administration.
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The recording, translating, and directing to Canadian Schools of the hundreds of letters of appreciation which have been sent back through CCRU headquarters has been, in a real sense, "a labour of love". Some of the letters were handed personally to Canadian representatives abroad at special ceremonies; some are notable works of art by student artists and student essayists; and as a permanent reminder of the School Box project, one letter of great artistic merit, signed by all the inhabitants of the Normandy village of Lisieux, is to be confided to the custody of the Public Archives of Canada. The Committee in charge hopes that the links of friendship represented by these gifts of basic school supplies, and confirmed by letters in many languages, may be the basis for a lasting and understanding friendship on a very personal basis.
Teachers, as well as students, were remembered through the sending of parcels of food and clothing, through the agency of Canadian CARE, to a value of $50,000.
The countries aided were selected by the World Organization of the teaching profession in co-operation with CARE. Distribution, by CARE, is being made to needy teachers selected by teachers' groups in the countries concerned.
The distribution of parcels has been carried out as follows:
|COUNTRY||Food||Woolen Suiting||Knitting Wool||Total|
|Germany (all Zones)||400||
|(Island of Rhodes||100||
400 parcels left to CARE to allocate -
As with the school boxes, the CARE parcels were identified with white and blue stickers showing the CCRU crest on a maple leaf and the word "Canada".
The campaign for books for war-devastated libraries conducted by the American Book Centre in June, 1948, aroused an interest in another tentative CCRU project, and during that summer a Joint Book Project Committee was set up jointly by the Canadian Library Association and CCRU. Members of the Committee included:
|Miss Margaret S. Gill, Chairman||Monsignor Olivier Maurault|
|Dr. O. E. Ault||Rev. Father A-M. Morisset|
|Dr. A. E. Chatwin||Miss E. H. Morton|
|Mr. C. F. Fraser||Mr. Angus Mowat|
|Mr. R. M. Hamilton||Mr. Garnet T. Page|
|Mr. F. A. Hardy||Miss Vernon Ross|
The Committee gave attention to two major projects: the creation of a Canadian Book Centre where screening and packing of books and periodicals would take place; and the organizing of a national campaign for the collection of books.
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In September, 1948, the Canadian Book Centre was established at Halifax and a Director and Librarian were appointed. The Department of Public Works made available a building, conveniently situated near the ocean docks, together with shelving and office facilities, without cost to CCRU. This centre was formally opened by the Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia on February 4, 1949. Among the guests present on this occasion was Dr. J. Zuckerman, Head, Clearing House for Publications, of UNESCO, Paris. During the first three months of 1949, over 47,000 serviceable items had been accessioned and shelved, pending receipt from European libraries of specific requests for material on the basis of forms of application developed by UNESCO. Only items which have been specifically requested will be shipped overseas.
The campaign known as "March of Books" (in French-language as "En avant les Livres") had as Honorary National Co-Chairman Monsignor Olivier Maurault, Rector of the University of Montreal, and Dr. James S. Thomson, lately President of the University of Saskatchewan. Dr. C.H. Best, C.B.E., served as President of the National Advisory Committee. The actual collection of books was intended to take place from January 15 to February 15, 1949. Because of a considerable delay in settling the rates of rail freight applicable on shipments to Halifax, no considerable shipments of books were made until the beginning of 1949. In advance of the public campaign, contributions were requested from libraries throughout Canada. An extensive publicity campaign by press, radio and posters was linked with the organization of local committees under regional organizers. The variety of sources from which books have come indicates what a widespread and genuine interest there is in Canada in providing books for the "hungry minds" of war-devastated countries. Screening in local centres was undertaken by members of the Canadian Library Association, using the criteria of selection and utility outlined in the document "What to Send" (9).
The very great need of universities and of scientific institutions in war-devastated countries for scientific equipment to carry on their research work was apparent from the years of war themselves. From its inception, the Council planned to extend aid of this character through the collection of used scientific equipment; actual collection, however, did not take place. In the first CCRU budget a sum of $150,000 was set aside for university and scientific reconstruction. At that time, it seemed likely that purchases would be limited to Canada, and the sub-committee on university reconstruction therefore limited its recommendations of aid to materials which could be purchased in Canada, such as food and clothing and paper and pencils.
Subsequently a permanent committee was set up, with the following membership:
Dr. F. J. Alcock, Chairman
Dr. Adrien Pouliot
Dr. O. E. Ault
Dr. John E. Robbins
Dr. James A Gibson
Mr. Marcel Roussin
Mr. Garnet T. Page
Dr. H. H. Saunderson
It soon became apparent that some technique should be developed whereby purchases of scientific equipment, for which request after request was piling up in the records of the Council, might be made.
Enquiries were made whether it would be possible for UNESCO to spend some of its U.S. funds for the purchase of scientific equipment in the United States, but this approach was not fruitful. A similar suggestion was advanced for purchases in the United Kingdom, partly on the basis of scientific equipment being somewhat less expensive in the United Kingdom than in the United States.
At a meeting in December, 1948, the University and Scientific Reconstruction Committee considered an extensive report on needs of European universities which Dr. Adrien Pouliot, Dean of the Faculty of Science of Laval University, had made following visits in several countries in the summer of 1948. It outlined and recommended a program of aid to the 20 institutions listed below, each of which was to receive a grant of $3,000 to be spent in the United Kingdom:
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University of Strasbourg
University of Nancy
University of Bordeaux
University of Grenoble
University of Angers
University of Poitiers
University of Bologna
University of Turino
University of the Sacred Heart, Milan
University of Genoa
University of Pisa
University of Louvain
University of Liege
University of Athens
University of Salonika
University of Groningen
University of Nijmegen
University of Oslo
University of the Philippines
University of Innsbruck
On the basis of a request transmitted by the former Prime Minister of Canada, the Rt. Hon. W.L. Mackenzie King, a special grant of $15,000 was made to the Pasteur Institute in Paris. A letter conveying this grant, signed by Mr. Mackenzie King, was handed to the Director of the Institute by the Chairman of the Executive Committee at a ceremony in Paris on January 5, 1949. The Canadian Ambassador to France was present, and the proceedings were recorded for broadcasting throughout France.
At the same time, 93 institutions over a much broader area were offered ten three-year subscriptions to learned and professional journals of their own choice. Still remaining in the University and Scientific Reconstruction budget are the following amounts;
|Reserve for further aid to institutions||$ 25,000|
|Food and clothing||25,000|
It was intended that this last amount should be used to publish in Canada monographs, theses, and studies and other papers which have not been circulated in the world of learning because of the dislocation and damage of war.
The co-operation of the Department of External Affairs had been secured in arranging for the administration in the recipient countries of the grants mentioned above and for assistance in purchasing procedure in the United Kingdom. The grants will be formally transmitted to the institutions concerned by the head of the Canadian Mission in their countries, and the Canadian Missions will also give assistance in choosing the materials needed. The choices in order of priority will be forwarded to Canada House in London. An order will be made up, which will be submitted to CCRU for approval before it is finally passed on to the manufacturer. In this way the recipient institution will be able to choose exactly its requirements, and close supervision of and final arrangements for the orders will be assured by Canadian representatives. It has been arranged that suppliers will ship the goods in care of the Canadian Mission in the country concerned, so that the Canadian Ambassador or other Head of Mission can undertake appropriate presentation ceremonies and secure the widest publicity and goodwill for Canada.
Discussions of the expenditures of the two allocations for further aid and for food and clothing are still proceeding.
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From its inception, the Council had received much generous support from the Canadian Arts Council and interested individual artists, and this support had been expressed in such a tangible way during the Canadian Appeal for Children, that the Council determined to include a program of aid to creative artists. As it turned out, this projected cultural reconstruction was to a large extent the first effective assistance given by an organization of any consequence to artists in the war-devastated countries. (10)
Immediately after the Council meeting in May, attempts were made to bring together a committee representing the arts in Canada, to administer the fund of $46,250 which the Council had authorized for assistance in this field. The absence of many artists during the summer delayed the formation of the committee until September. The committee now has the following membership:
|Mr. Claude E. Lewis, Chairman||Mrs. Geza De Kresz|
|Dr. Jean Bruchesi||Mrs. F. Grant Marriott|
|Mr. A. J. Carson||Mr. Mark Mountfield|
|Mr. Philip Child||Mr. Will Ogilvie|
|Mr. Charles Comfort||Mr. Carl Schaefer|
|Mr. Emanuel Hahn||Mr. Leonard Shore|
|Mr. Fred Haines||Miss Elizabeth Wyn Wood|
|Mr. Geza De Kresz|
The Committee decided that the following categories of mature, practising artists should be aided: painters, sculptors, musicians, writers, architects, and workers in the crafts. Numerous organizations were consulted for assistance in setting out a program: The Department of External Affairs, UNESCO offices in Paris and New York, the British Council, the United Kingdom Trade Commissioner in Ottawa, the Allied Control Commission for Germany, the International Committee for the Placement of Intellectual Refugees, the Music Division of the New York Public Library, the American Red Cross, and the Eastman School of Music, but no final pattern of aid developed from these explorations.
By the end of the year, all obvious avenues of assistance had been explored but no proposals had yet been adopted. A meeting of the Committee held in late January determined on a program of aid to four countries in Europe and to Ethiopia, in the following amounts: Austria $10,000, France $12,000, Germany $12,000, Italy $10,000, Ethiopia $2,000. These amounts, to be spent in the United Kingdom on materials for the arts, are to be made available to the UNESCO National Commission or other appropriate body which has contacts with all artists in the country concerned. In Ethiopia, the money is to be used to assist the reconstruction of folk-art. The terms and the administration of these grants are to be identical with those of the University Reconstruction grants project.
Emphasis has always been given to the necessity for exchange of persons in the work of the UNESCO Reconstruction Section and CCRU has always recognized the advisability of allocating part of its resources to work of this kind. A Fellowships Committee was established at the Council meeting in May to examine a working paper on this matter and to lay more detailed plans for fellowship administration.
This committee now consists of:
|Dr. James A. Gibson, Chairman||Dr. C. E. Phillips|
|Dr. F. J. Alcock||Dr. Adrien Pouliot|
|Dr. O. E. Ault||Dr. John E. Robbins|
|Mr. T. C. Daly||Mr. J. K. B. Robertson|
|Mr. C. F. Fraser||Dr. H. H. Saunderson|
|Mr. W. B. Herbert||Rev. Father Henri St-Denis|
|Dr. Leon Lortie||Dr. D. L. Thompson|
|Mr. Garnet T. Page||Miss Elizabeth Wyn Wood|
|Mr. Frank G. Patten|
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Upon reviewing the working paper, the committee determined that CCRU should attempt to offer its fellowships to mature individuals at a high level, rather than to students and early post-graduate workers. The stipend for each individual fellowship was fixed at an average amount of $2,500. This figure would enable approximately 64 fellowships to be offered among various countries from the budget allocation of $182,000 for this project. It was agreed that the UNESCO Office for the Exchange of Persons should be asked to suggest what countries might receive these grants. UNESCO's recommendation for the Canada-UNESCO Fellowships, which was reviewed and accepted by the Fellowships Committee, was as follows:
Since this allocation was accepted, Hungary has declined the offer of four fellowships, and the Committee has provisionally allocated two places to Ethiopia.
The program, as it has been worked out, began by the publicizing of the Canada-UNESCO Fellowships and the inviting of applications by UNESCO from the various countries and the reviewing of these applications before forwarding them to CCRU for consideration and award. In the meantime, CCRU carried on extensive exploratory liaison with the various institutions in Canada which would be asked to receive the Fellows when they came to this country.
Valuable assistance was given in the individual screening of applicants as to their characters, personalities, and knowledge of English and French, by the Canadian Missions in the recipient countries. The work of the Canadian Ambassadors in Brussels, Paris and Athens and the Canadian Charges d' Affaires in Prague and Warsaw is especially worthy of note.
Because of the length of time necessarily involved between the inviting of applications and their eventual arrival in the hands of the Fellowships Committee, it was not until early in December 1948 that the Fellowships Committee received the first applications. Between December and March, the Committee has reviewed and assessed the dossiers of candidates from Belgium, China, Denmark, Norway, the Phillipines and Poland, and has recommended the award of 19 fellowships within this group. The fields of study covered include creative arts, education, mass media, the social sciences and the humanities, and science and technology.
At the invitation of the Committee, Mr. C. F. Fraser undertook the direction of a fellowship administration office within the general framework of the CCRU Secretariat. He had undertaken extensive enquiries as to the experience of other agencies in administering fellowship programs, notably that of the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation, the Institute of International Education, and the British Council. The whole of the administrative procedure following formal notification of award, including travel arrangements, insurance, payment of stipends, orientation in Canada, examination of study plans and working itineraries has been worked out in exact detail, and has been confirmed both with the Department of External Affairs and with UNESCO. The Chairman of the Committee had the advantage of discussions with Mr. William D. Carter, head of the Exchange of Persons section of UNESCO, in Paris early in January, and during March the Committee had the benefit of further discussion during a visit which Mr. Carter made to Ottawa. Many voluntary agencies have offered facilities and hospitality to Fellows on their arrival and during their stay in Canada. Plans are now well advanced for the reception of Fellows, some of whom it is hoped will be arriving in May, 1949.
The Fellowships Project, by its nature, is likely to continue well into 1950, and provision for administrative direction has been made accordingly. The Committee contemplates the publication of a detailed report of the operation of the project which covers the first group of Canada-UNESCO Fellows.
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The Council originally reserved an amount of $16,500 for publications, (11) in addition to the allocation of $50,000 which was made to the Book Centre and for the March of Books campaign. Explorations are under way with the Head of the Library Division of UNESCO as to the best method of administering this fund. Proposals for devoting part or all of this sum to a UNESCO project for the reprinting of periodicals much in demand and now out of print are under active discussion.
CCRU has also forwarded, on behalf of other organizations, supplies which they have collected. Reference has already been made to the collection of sculptors' supplies made by a member of the Creative Arts Committee. Pickering College, at Newmarket, Ontario, made a large collection of supplies which CCRU undertook to forward to a school in Brunswick, Germany, designated by the college.
Under the auspices of the Commission for International Educational Reconstruction in the United States a seminar was held at the University of Maryland of educators from countries all over the world to discuss problems of education for international understanding. CCRU was invited to take part in the seminar and, in consultation with the Canadian Educational Association and the Canadian Teachers' Federation, designated Mr. H. Janzen, Director of Curricula of the Saskatchewan Department of Education, to represent Canadian educationalists at this conference. Mr. Janzen took a very active part in the deliberations.
The Canadian Committee of International Student Service applied to the Council early in 1948 for assistance towards the expenses of an international seminar in Germany in which Canadian and other European students would participate. A grant of $16,000 was made for this purpose. This seminar was held at Schoss-Ploen in the British zone of Germany and, according to the report of I.S.S., achieved a striking success in drawing together groups from various countries and in helping to restore the free flow of thought between university students from countries which had lately been at war. The Executive Committee, on March 27, 1949, authorized a grant of $12,500 toward the expenses of a similar international summer seminar to be held in the Netherlands in July, 1949.
At its first annual meeting, the Council voted to UNESCO a free gift of $25,000. Proposals for the use of this amount, subject to the single condition that it should be spent in Canada, have been under discussion for some months, but (as of March, 1949) no final word has been received of the decision taken by UNESCO in this matter. The appreciation of UNESCO was expressed in a cordial letter from the Director-General.
The Reconstruction Section of UNESCO convened a meeting of national experts on educational scientific and cultural reconstruction in Paris on January 3 and 4, 1949. At the invitation of UNESCO, and with the concurrence of the Operating Committee, Dr. James A. Gibson, Chairman of the Executive Committee, was present, together with Mr. Garnet T. Page, Treasurer of CCRU. In addition to the actual meetings in Paris, Dr. Gibson and Mr. Page were able to exchange information with the various sections of UNESCO. Mr. Page made a visit to the International Children's Village (Pestalozzidorf) at Troegen (Switzerland). Dr. Gibson had the advantage of discussions with the Canadian Ambassadors in Paris and Brussels, with the High Commissioner for Canada in London and members of the staff of Canada House, as well as with officials of the United Kingdom National Commission for UNESCO and of the Ministry of Education. These visits did not involve expense to CCRU.
Reference has been made to visits to Ottawa of Dr. J. Zuckerman and Mr. W. D. Carter, both from UNESCO, Paris. In February, 1949, Dr. Walter H. C. Laves, Deputy Director-General, spent two days in Ottawa, during which he met a number of members of the Executive Committee of CCRU. Three members of the Executive were present at the biennial meeting of the United States National Commission for UNESCO, held at Cleveland, Ohio, in April. While there they had the opportunity for conversations with Dr. Bernard Drzewieski, head of the Reconstruction Section of UNESCO.
The annual meeting of the Council will be held in Quebec on May 27 and 28, 1949.
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The work of CCRU was undertaken when the reconstruction needs of war-devastated countries were very great, and in one sense the material contributions from Canada -- in the shape of food, clothing, books, and the materials by which education, science and culture may be revived -- have gone only a little distance towards meeting these needs. In another sense the recognition that this assistance had come from the people of Canada has made a lasting impression upon a post-war generation in many countries. It is estimated that, through the School Box project alone, for example, some 25,000 teachers and 800,000 pupils have had some small direct contact with Canada. No estimate is yet possible how great a contribution books from Canada may make to the rebuilding or replenishing of university libraries, nor how many foyers of research and enquiry may benefit from new scientific equipment, nor how many artists of whatever calling may find new inspiration in materials for work which come from Canada. It is hoped that the Canada-UNESCO Fellows on their return to their own countries, may become real envoys of understanding.
The actual needs of reconstruction have sensibly changed, even within a year and a half, but the needs of understanding will continue as an imperative of education, science and culture by their very names.
If it is true that the defence of peace must be built up in the minds of men and women everywhere, then the voluntary agencies of freedom-loving countries have work to do in this process of building. If the idea of one world is ever to be achieved, it will take every effort of understanding of which these men and women are capable. It is in this spirit that CCRU has gone about its work; and it is in this spirit that CCRU hopes that the work of educational, scientific and cultural reconstruction may be continued by many agencies throughout the land.
(1) See list in Appendix "A"
(2) See list in Appendix "B". [Appendix 'B' was missing from this copy - Ed.]
(3) Vouchers for this amount were delivered to the Department of External Affairs by the Chairman of the Executive Committee on March 24, 1949.
(4) Proceeds from rentals and exhibition in countries outside Canada have been carried in a separate Film account in the Council's Books. As at March 15, 1948, the CCRU share amounted to $91.66.
(5) The annual meeting confirmed the Charter of the Canadian Council for Reconstruction through UNESCO, constituting the Council an incorporated body under part 2 of the Companies Act.
(6) For list of members, see Appendix "C". [Appendix 'C' was missing from this copy - Ed.]
(7) One hundred of these boxes were originally destined for Luxembourg, but when that country suggested they were not needed they were re-allocated to D.P. [displaced persons - Ed.] Camps in Germany through the World's Federation of Young Men's Christian Associations. The remaining 50 boxes were delivered to the American Friends Service Committee.
(8) Montship lines Ltd., Canada Continental Line ltd., Swedish-America Line, Oranie Line, and Capo Line.
(9) A copy of this document is attached as Appendix "D". [Appendix 'D' was missing from this copy - Ed.]
(10) Before this committee was constituted Mr. Emanuel Hahn had gathered together approximately $1,000 worth of sculptor's supplies. These supplies, supplemented by a small amount purchased through the committee, are over and above the committee's budget.
(11) An additional amount of $9,000 was included in the budget of the University Reconstruction Committee.
*Canadian Council for Reconstruction Through UNESCO. Submission to Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences. [Ottawa : The Council, 1949]. 15 feuilles. Avec la permission du Bureau du Conseil Privé.