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1. LOCAL LIVE BROADCASTS.
a. Extent of Local Live Programmes.
Independent stations, as a group, totalled an average of 34.8% of total broadcast hours between 6:00 and 11:00 p.m. to local live programmes. There is no marked difference here between them and Group B affiliated stations. Group B stations (Trans-Canada) devoted 27.9% and Group B stations (Dominion) 35.7% to such programmes.
Group A stations, with fuller network services available, devoted considerably less--CBC Groups A stations 8.5%; Private Group A stations 17.5% (Trans-Canada): Private Group A stations (Dominion) 18%; Private Group A stations (French) 15.1%.
b. News, Sportscasts and Sports Events.
Except in one group (Trans-Canada Group B stations) there is again close similarity between independent and all Group A and B affiliated station groups in the percentage of local live broadcasting devoted to news and sportcasts and coverage of sports events. Between 6:00 and 11:00 p.m. the percentage of all local live broadcasting thus absorbed was:
c. Programmes of Canadian Origin.
One of the few rather striking contrasts between independent and affiliated stations (showing the influence of association with a network) is with respect to the amount of programmes of Canadian origin which are broadcast in evening hours.
Independent stations are 10% short of the nearest group among affiliated stations in their output of Canadian programmes. They are 22% short of the average output (62.5%) of Canadian programme matter by the six affiliated groups combined.
a. Music Programmes as Percentage of All Broadcasts.
The average percentage of music programmes on independent stations (57%) is somewhat higher than the average for Group A and B stations (50%); and individual stations in the Independent group run to greater extremes. Thus, on Independent stations individual percentages range from 29.4% to 80%, on affiliated stations from 28% to 66%. Such marked departures from the norm are generally more frequent among Independent stations.
b. Serious Music.
A relative dearth of serious music has been noted on both Independent and affiliated stations, though comparison is somewhat in favour of the Independents. 28% of these stations have less than an hour of serious music a day. This, however, is true of about one-third of the affiliated stations analyzed.
c. Popular Music.
The average percentage (48.4%) of total broadcast hours devoted to popular music over Independent stations is higher than that of any group of affiliated stations. But the margin of difference, at its narrowest, is only 4.9%. At its widest it is 16.7%. The average percentage for all affiliated groups combined is 39%, i.e. 9.4% less than that of the Independent group.
d. Ratios of Serious and Popular Music.
The average ratio of serious and popular music for independent stations was 1:12. This is in marked contrast to that of Group A (1:5) and Group B (1:6) affiliated stations. (It will be remembered that the Independent group's average was affected by one exceptional station with a ratio of 1:117. Even if this station is eliminated, however, the group's adjusted ratio (1:8) is higher than that of either Group A or B affiliates. 68% of Independent stations had a ratio of 1:5 or more, as contrasted with 48% of Group A and B affiliates.
Extreme disparities were likewise more evident among individual Independent stations. Thus one station had 117 times, and two stations 26 times as much light as serious music. The most extreme instance among affiliated stations was that of a station with a ratio of 1:19.
3. RECORDS AND TRANSCRIPTIONS.
Independent stations are sharply contrasted with affiliated stations in their extensive use of records and transcriptions. Their average is higher, by a margin of 8.4%, than that of the nearest group of affiliated stations.
The contrast is similarly marked in evening hours between 6:00 and 11:00 p.m., though the percentage of time devoted to records and transcriptions is then less than for all day broadcasting. Between 6:00 and 11:00 p.m. Independent stations averaged 62.6% of records and transcriptions, a figure exceeding that for each and all of the affiliated groups. The average percentage for all affiliated groups combined was 40.2%, or 22.4% less than that for Independent stations. Here again the influence of network affiliation is highlighted.
4. PROGRAMMES OF UNITED STATES ORIGIN.
More programmes, on average, of United States origin reach Canadian listeners over affiliated than over Independent stations.
Transcribed programmes of United States origin broadcast on twenty-two Independent stations averaged 12.5% of total broadcast hours. This is a lower average percentage than that for four of the six groups of affiliated stations examined. Only on Group B stations, Trans-Canada (5.5%) and Private Group A stations, French network (4.2%) was the percentage lower than for the Independent group.
On CBC Group A stations (Trans-Canada) 13.2% and Private Group A (Dominion) 13%, average percentages were almost identical with that for Independent stations. On Private Group A stations (Trans-Canada) and Private Group B stations (Dominion) the percentage was nearly double (23% and 23.4% respectively) that for the Independent group.
Between 6:00 and 11:00 p. m. the average percentage of United States transcribed programmes rises, on Independent stations, to 18.8% of the entire period. But even at this higher figure Independent stations are outbidden by two of the six affiliated groups examined which showed 26.3% (Private Group A stations, Trans-Canada) and 23.3% (Private Group B stations, Dominion) respectively.
If CBC network programmes of United States origin carried by the affiliated stations analyzed are included, the comparative incidence of United States material is as follows. (French network stations are excluded in view of the language barrier to extensive United States borrowing.)
5. COMMERCIAL AND SUSTAINING PROGRAMMES.
The average percentage of commercial programmes (34.8%) for all Group A and B affiliated stations combined is higher than that (29.6%) for twenty-two Independent stations analyzed by 5.2%.
The average percentage on Independent stations is exceeded by that for four of the six affiliated station groups examined; Private Group A, 39.3%, Private Group B, 54.6% (Trans-Canada); Private Group A, 32.3% and Private Group B, 30.0% (Dominion).
Between 6:00 and 11:00 p.m. the average percentage of commercial programmes rises on Independent stations to 36.3%. At this higher figure Independent stations are within 8% range of all six affiliated station groups, with the exception of Group B stations Trans-Canada, which, in evening hours, carry 69.4% commercial programmes.
6. COMMERCIAL SPOT ANNOUNCEMENTS.
The seeming financial advantage, with respect to sponsored programmes, enjoyed by Group A and B stations with network affiliation is partly offset by the relatively greater amount of commercial spot announcements carried by Independent stations.
Commercial spot announcements are markedly more frequent on Independent than on affiliated Group A and B stations. Twenty-two Independent stations examined averaged five spot announcements an hour in permissible periods through out the entire week. Of the six Group A and B affiliated station groups examined, only one averaged five spot announcements an hour. (See page 461.)
The frequency of high incidence of spot announcements over individual stations was also greater among Independent stations. Thus four Independent stations (18% of the group examined)carried an average of ten commercial spot announcements an hour in permissible periods, whereas among all affiliated station groups the highest incidence of spot announcements was eight an hour over one station.
* These stations have Trans-Canada service available when Dominion network inoperative.
C. French Network
*For stations broadcasting in excess of 17 hours a day (or 7140 minutes weekly) the percentage figures in this chart are inaccurate, in that music programmes up to midnight only were enumerated. As the hours after midnight to approximately 7:00 a.m. are almost exclusively devoted to music, the real percentage of total broadcast time devoted to music over these stations is very much higher.
*For stations broadcasting in excess of 17 hours a day (or 7140 minutes a week) the percentage figures in this chart are inaccurate, in that music programmes up to midnight only were enumerated. As the hours after midnight to approximately 7:00 a.m. are almost exclusively devoted to music, the real percentage of total broadcast time devoted to music programmes on such stations is very much higher.
* From: Canada. Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences. Report. Ottawa : King's Printer, 1951. By permission of the Privy Council Office.