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A World of Information

Creating Multicultural Collections and Programs in Canadian Public Libraries

Edited by
Joanne Godin
Ottawa 1994


Printable Versions:  [PDF 251 KB]  [RTF 593 KB]


Table of Contents

Foreword

Building a Multilingual Collection in Your Public Library
This book will help you to get started
Multiculturalism in Canada
Multicultural library services
Marketing a small multilingual collection
Guidelines from the Canadian Library Association
Establish contact with minority communities
Build a multilingual collection slowly

Creating a Profile of Ethnocultural Minority Communities
Learn about community members
Use statistics to supplement personal accounts
Canada's ethnocultural minority groups
Regional statistics

Bringing Your Library to the Community
Use the community network
Get information directly to the community
Train staff for outreach and multicultural service

Bringing the Community to Your Library
Within the library
Multicultural library programs
The Surrey Public Library
Promote your library's services
Translation and "transcreation"

Multicultural Staff Training
Multicultural workshops

Where Do We Go from Here?
Reaching out to the community
Improving quality of service
The challenge and opportunity of diversity

Footnotes

Selective Annotated Bibliography

Foreword

The National Library of Canada established the Multilingual Biblioservice in 1973 in response to a perception in the Canadian library community that the demand for books in languages other than English and French was growing. The report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism included a recommendation that Canada's policy on multiculturalism be strengthened. Clearly, the National Library of Canada had a role to play in promoting the multicultural nature of our country.

Twenty years later, the numerous multilingual collections and programs present in libraries across the country testify to the success of the Multilingual Biblioservice. The fact that many members of the Canadian library community are now able to fulfill the needs of their users, combined with the effects of budget constraints and resource reductions, have encouraged the National Library to reconsider the role of the Multilingual Biblioservice. Consultations with other libraries continue, and the Library is committed to continuing to serve Canada's diverse population.

This publication, A World of Information, is one part of our contribution to multilingual services in Canadian libraries, and has been produced with the support of the Multiculturalism Secretariat, Department of Canadian Heritage. It follows the production of a report on library services to multicultural communities commissioned jointly by the National Library of Canada and Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada and prepared by information resources consultant Françoise Hébert. We hope that libraries will find A World of Information a valuable source of information in their work of serving users from diverse cultural backgrounds.

Marianne Scott
National Librarian

CHAPTER ONE

Building a Multilingual Collection in Your Public Library

In 1973 the National Library of Canada created the Multilingual Biblioservice (MBS) so that public libraries across Canada could offer their patrons books in languages other than English and French. Twenty years later the National Library is reducing the scope of the work of the Multilingual Biblioservice and donating the collection to public libraries and deposit centres across the country. The National Library retains an advisory service to assist public libraries serving ethnocultural minority communities across Canada. The existence of the Multilingual Biblioservice encouraged many libraries to add to the materials they borrowed from the National Library. Some made substantial budget commitments towards the purchase of books in languages other than English and French and materials to teach English or French as a second language. These libraries, often in larger cities and towns, can help to guide smaller libraries that want to establish new multilingual collections.

This book will help you to get started

The National Library of Canada has prepared this book primarily for librarians in towns and small cities to help you establish continuing contacts with the ethnocultural minority communities that may use your library's multilingual collection. By following the advice and practical suggestions in this book you should be able to find the support and information you need to manage a multilingual collection. How you administer your collection, whether through informal or sophisticated means, is up to you. This introductory chapter discusses what multiculturalism means to Canada and Canadians, points out the need for and benefits of multilingual collections in public libraries, and outlines how libraries can develop helpful contacts in local ethnocultural minority communities as they start to build a collection. Chapter Two describes how you can assess the needs of your community by developing statistical and demographic profiles of ethnocultural minority groups. To help you get started we have included data for each province and territory, and for some large cities, from the 1991 Census of Canada.

Chapter Three presents ideas for reaching out to minority communities, including tips on how to communicate with individuals who speak languages other than English or French. Chapter Four describes steps that libraries can take to make people from ethnocultural minority communities feel comfortable and welcome in the library. It describes the successful approach taken by the Surrey Public Library to bring the area's minority communities into the library. This chapter also discusses how libraries can use the media to reach out to linguistic minority groups. Chapter Five describes a variety of training programs that can help library staff to deal successfully with multilingual collections and work effectively with a diverse clientele. The book concludes with a selective annotated bibliography.

Multiculturalism in Canada

The need for programs and services geared specifically to the interests of ethnocultural minority communities is evolving as Canada's population becomes more diverse. The Multiculturalism Policy of Canada calls on public institutions to respond to the diverse needs and interests of all community members. The Canadian tradition of multiculturalism reflects a conviction that, by accepting and promoting cultural diversity, Canadian society will develop a shared sense of Canadian identity that respects the diversity of the country and its people. Canadians support this policy and approach to citizenship. Indeed, a 1991 survey of Canadians by the Angus Reid Group, conducted for Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada, found that 95 percent of Canadians believe that one can be proud to be a Canadian and proud of one's ancestry at the same time. Canadians share a commitment to democratic principles, human rights and individual freedoms and a view that this country is strengthened by its diversity. The survey showed that Canadians are comfortable with and supportive of this diversity. Eighty-two percent of Canadians live in diverse neighbourhoods with some or many persons representing ethnocultural minority communities. A large majority of Canadians support measures to help immigrants and new Canadians acquire the skills and knowledge they need to integrate into Canadian society. Canadians believe that Canada's multiculturalism policy helps to ensure that people from various cultural backgrounds will have a sense of belonging in this country. Two-thirds of Canadians agree that a diverse society is better able to tackle new problems as they occur.

Multicultural library services

As Canada has become more diverse, public libraries have responded to this demographic shift by adapting to the needs of the larger society. Offering varied book collections and programs for a diverse clientele are priorities for public libraries. Libraries are developing contacts with ethnocultural minority groups and offering and promoting library services relevant to the groups. Some libraries sponsor special events for ethnocultural minority communities, often presenting cultural showcases that enable members of the library's "traditional" clientele to get to know their neighbours' cultures and traditions. Some libraries are making their presence known in minority communities by offering information sessions on library resources and services. Most importantly, some libraries are creating multilingual collections and asking community members for help in managing the collections. This information connection is essential for ethnocultural minority groups and for the libraries themselves.

A study of multilingual groups in Eastern Ontario in 1988, however, found that most representatives of ethnocultural minority communities did not know about library services, and did not perceive the library as a service relevant to the needs and objectives of minority communities.

This view of libraries represents an important opportunity for action. The survey showed that leaders in ethnocultural minority communities had not considered the possibility of working with the local library to enhance the community's understanding of its history, traditions and lifestyle. These individuals were not aware that the library has facilities such as meeting rooms and display space, or public programs. Many had not thought that the library provides materials in languages other than English or French. And while many groups who were new to Canada had significant interest in programs and materials that would improve their ability to speak and understand English, few had considered the library as a source of these services.1 Clearly, what is needed is information through personal contacts to ensure that connections are made.

Marketing multilingual collection

Many public libraries are concerned that their multilingual services and collections may not be substantial enough to satisfy the demand that may be created if they are marketed to ethnocultural minority communities. This fear is well founded. Interviews with immigrants who have used multilingual library collections 2 have revealed problems with a lack of variety and currency, even when the library has added to the collection regularly.

The fear of demands for more and better collections and services can keep some libraries from reaching out to ethnocultural minority communities. It is felt that if a potential user comes to the library expecting to find a large collection, only to see empty shelves, the client may leave, being discouraged, and is unlikely to visit again. Some librarians might feel that it is better to have no publicity rather than risk disappointing or discouraging library users. This attitude is self-defeating. If a collection is inadequate and is not promoted, demand for services is not likely to increase.

How can people request a service they know nothing about? Libraries are information centres, but many immigrants and new Canadians are intimidated by libraries and do not perceive them as sources for "coping" information. They reach out to other sources to fill their information needs. Unlike users of English-language reading materials, community members who speak languages other than English or French have few places to which they can turn as an alternative to public libraries. Foreign language book stores are found in some metropolitan areas, but the cost of books can be prohibitive. And small cities and towns are less likely to have retail outlets providing these specialized products.

Guidelines from the Canadian Library Association

The Canadian Library Association has set guidelines for multilingual collections in Canadian libraries. It states that minority language communities of 300 or more people in a library system should receive service on a "fair and equitable per capita level". For communities of fewer than 300 people, the Association states that libraries should provide "at least several basic reference books and a newspaper or periodical title. Other materials in the relevant language(s) should be available from a central collection and/or a cooperative arrangement." The Association considers the following functions to be appropriate for public libraries:

Create multilingual collections

  • Clearly state goals and objectives for services to ethnocultural minority groups within the library's overall priorities.
  • Provide a multilingual service and make available locally materials whose format or frequency of publication makes them unsuitable for interlibrary loan or exchange.
  • Assess the community's needs regularly, base services on this assessment and collect statistics and data.

Share multicultural resources

  • Share multicultural resources with other libraries and, if possible, with ethnocultural groups and others who have special collections.
  • Provide leadership to other libraries when multicultural services are well developed.

Establish contact with minority communities

The best way to bring an awareness of public libraries to ethnocultural minority communities, and to bring members of these communities into the library, is through personal contacts. The success of a multicultural service in your library depends on effective outreach and promotion of the library and its services within the ethnocultural minority communities it serves. Traditional promotional approaches will not work. The most effective way to bring your library into the community, and to bring the community into your library, is to forge links with representatives of this audience, one that is growing and that is unlikely to come to your library on its own initiative.

The ease with which you will be able to identify and make effective contact with representatives of ethnocultural minority communities in your area will depend on how large and well-established the communities are. By contacting an agency that serves immigrants such as a church group or a voluntary organization that helps newcomers to adjust to life in Canada, you can get ideas on how to find key contact persons. But no matter how well-organized the community is, it is never possible to find one person who can speak for a whole community. Each ethnocultural minority community, like any group of individuals, includes a range of religious, cultural and political views, education and income levels, and literacy and language skills. Try to get a broad representation of the community by talking to several people.

Start with basic information

Be open in discussions about the potential size of a multilingual collection in your library and about restraints caused by budget concerns and limited staff time. Use an initial meeting to find out what kinds of information materials members of the community might want and need from the public library. Would people prefer fresh news from newspapers and other periodicals, or is there a need for fiction, non-fiction, or audiovisual materials? Would people rely on the library for materials to learn English or French as a second language? Are there community members who would be interested in learning or improving their knowledge of a heritage language? What considerations about religion, dialect and regional interests need to be taken into account? You will also need general information about the community's make-up. Are most people new to Canada? Is there a mix of long-time residents and newcomers?

Community members can help you to develop a collection

The community representatives can continue to help you as you set up a multilingual collection by advising on subjects of interest, popular authors and publications, and particular community needs. You can also consult with the representatives on how best to promote your library's services among members of the community. These initial contacts may also lead you to individuals who can help you by screening titles for acquisitions or by translating promotional materials.

Some ethnocultural minority communities have collections of books and periodicals and may wish to donate them to the library in the interests of freeing up space and making the collection more widely available. If you have room, you might consider accepting such donations. Some libraries have found, however, that donated materials are often of little interest to library clientele. Perhaps people tend to donate materials that are of less interest to them. Therefore, library collections must be regularly updated.

Work in stages

If you are making your first foray into multilingual services, you may need to concentrate on serving one community at a time. Build your collection, and your consultative network, in stages. If there are several large linguistic communities in your area, consider whether one might be easier to serve than others. You will be learning partly by trial and error, so it is reasonable to start out with a goal that seems easier to achieve. You can get advice on where to start from the National Library and from libraries in your region, as discussed below.

Build a multilingual collection slowly

Several factors present challenges for public libraries wishing to create and maintain a multilingual collection. Shrinking budgets force libraries to make choices between competing services, for example. Although libraries' mandates call on them to serve all community members equitably, it is a challenge to maintain a variety of programs and services as demands on libraries increase. Creating a multilingual collection also involves developing new procedures to purchase and manage materials in unfamiliar languages.

Be part of a library network

To maximize their purchasing power, and to develop their expertise in this area, some libraries are creating purchasing pools for their province or region. Multilingual purchasing pools exist in Toronto and Vancouver, and one is being developed in Alberta. By discussing their communities' needs and involving members of ethnocultural minority communities in these discussions, public libraries can make significant progress in setting up new collections. Libraries in a region can also share multilingual resources by rotating collections among members of the regional network.

You will need more advice and help to set up a multilingual collection, which can come from the National Library in Ottawa and from other libraries in your area. The public library in the metropolitan area closest to you can be a great source of information and assistance. Librarians there may have experience in ordering books overseas through book dealers in Canada and can recommend a local dealer, for example.

Keep things simple

While your collection is growing you can take steps to maintain community interest even if you cannot meet all of the community's needs. Avoid disappointment with the collection by providing a binder of photocopied covers and prefaces of books, the mastheads of newspapers, and descriptive labels for videos and other materials in your collection. Include a note in the language of the reader offering to take reservations for items not on the shelves. While patrons might still leave the library disappointed because materials could not be borrowed, they will have a better appreciation of the library services available to them and a recognition that the library is making an effort to meet the community's needs.

As you establish your collection you can begin by using a simple numbering system to keep track of borrowed items. You may find that users from linguistic minority groups prefer consulting the stacks, so there may be no urgent need for a card catalogue or online listing of your collection. But you may wish to keep track of user preferences by tracking borrowing habits before you develop a card catalogue or online listing.

Build staff skills

Consider the impact that a diverse user community will have upon your library's services and your employees' work. Collecting books and other materials is only one aspect of a multicultural library service. As the community and the library staff become more diverse, employees at all levels will need training so that they can continue to offer excellent service to all members of your community. Chapter Three contains a number of simple strategies to provide effective service to a multilingual user community. Chapter Five describes formal training programs that are available across Canada. The following chapter will help you identify and develop a profile of ethnocultural minority communities in your area.

CHAPTER TWO

Creating a Profile of Ethnocultural Minority Communities

A fundamental premise for multicultural library services to ethnocultural minority groups is that these groups have particular needs and wants and that each minority community's needs and wants are unique. A multicultural service must therefore be based on a thorough understanding of the background, make-up, needs and wants of each group in the community. This can be accomplished through a needs assessment.

Learn about community members

The first step in a needs assessment is to identify the largest ethnocultural minority communities in your area and meet with representatives of one minority community, as described in Chapter One. After finding out about the community's make-up and information needs, you may want to learn about cultural and religious traditions, conditions in the homeland, any competing interests within the group, and the existence of clubs, services and businesses created by and for the community locally. One way to do this may be to invite community representatives to make a presentation to library staff. This session can serve as an orientation to the library, an information exchange, and a cultural awareness exercise for staff members. You may wish to ask the representatives how community members perceive libraries and other educational institutions in the homeland and in Canada. Some people consider libraries intimidating places. If that is the case for members of a particular ethnocultural minority community, you can adjust your promotion activities to take account of this attitude.

In Toronto, the Metro Multilanguage Services Committee organized a workshop for the staff of public library systems in the metropolitan area to help them come to know and understand the region's multicultural community. Representatives from various ethnocultural minority communities were invited to speak about the following aspects of their communities:

  • historical background of settlement in Canada,
  • distribution in the metro area,
  • community organizations, places of worship and schools, and
  • reading interests and information needs.

Because the metro area includes many ethnocultural minority communities, the workshop included speakers from the Spanish, Greek, Ukrainian, Japanese, South Asian and Korean communities. The committee charged a nominal registration fee to cover honoraria for the speakers and refreshments for the group.

Use statistics to supplement personal accounts

You may also wish to develop a more complete profile of the ethnocultural minority groups in your area by examining statistics and demographic information. Consult your municipal or regional government for local statistics and for general information on patterns of settlement in your area. Local organizations, such as multicultural agencies, religious groups and immigrant-serving agencies, can give you information on conditions faced by immigrants and refugees and direct you to community leaders and community groups. The provincial or territorial government and the federal government are also important sources of statistical and other information.

Canada's ethnocultural minority groups

Almost one in four Canadians trace their origins to a country where people speak a language other than English or French. The extent of ethnocultural diversity in Canada varies from region to region and from city to rural area. The western provinces have the most diverse populations, and Canada's largest cities Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Winnipeg, Toronto and Montreal have the greatest concentration of immigrants and ethnocultural minority communities. The size of minority communities varies greatly in different parts of the country. According to Don Miller, of Multifax Communications in Toronto, "The West Indian/Black population of Toronto is nearly as large as the population of Regina; the Italian population of Ontario equals the population of Winnipeg; and the ethnic population of Toronto is larger than the entire population of Vancouver." Those statements were made to Canadian Business magazine in 1988. The 1991 Census shows that they are still valid today.

A note on statistics

The following statistics and data in the tables are from the 1991 Census of Canada. They take account of the number of respondents who reported ethnocultural origins other than British or French. "Other" origins include aboriginal ancestry, so all of these global statistics include Canada's aboriginal peoples. Public libraries may want and need to include aboriginal languages in their multilingual collections, but this book deals only with linguistic minorities formed by immigrants who speak little or no English or French. Collection needs for aboriginal communities and sources of books in aboriginal languages would, no doubt, differ considerably from the proposals in this book. These proposals follow from a study of the National Library's Multilingual Biblioservice, which did not include aboriginal languages. If your library wishes to include a collection of materials in aboriginal languages you can receive excellent additional advice and guidance from aboriginal communities in your area.

Canadian diversity, from west to east

In the Western provinces, fully 30.7 percent of Manitobans - the least diverse western province - report ethnocultural origins other than British or French, while 41.5 percent of the people of Saskatchewan are members of ethnocultural minority groups. In the Northwest Territories, 78 percent of the population reports origins other than British or French! In the Yukon, the figure is 60 percent. The populations of the two territories include high proportions of aboriginal people.

With 30.6 percent of its population reporting ethnocultural origins other than British or French, Ontario has the largest number of minority group members - more than three million people! In Toronto almost half the population - 44.5 percent, or 1 500 000 people - are members of ethnocultural minority groups.

The populations of Quebec and the Atlantic provinces are less diverse. In the Atlantic provinces, 4.9 percent are members of ethnocultural minority groups, while 11 percent of Quebec's population has origins other than British or French. In Montreal, however, 21.1 percent of the population reports ethnocultural origins other than British or French.

Statistics Canada's reports on the Census are also valuable sources of information about the languages first spoken and still understood by Canadian residents, the language spoken at home, and the language used in everyday activities. In ethnocultural minority communities, the language used in business may be a predictor of the language spoken at home. If immigrants are involved, for example, in businesses that serve other members of the minority community or that deal with the homeland, the family may continue to speak the mother tongue at home. If, however, people discover that they need to become more proficient in English or French to find employment, family members may speak the new language at home. It is a truism that seniors are more likely to use the mother tongue in everyday life, learning enough English or French to get along in the community. Children who are born in Canada may learn English or French as a first language and speak it at school.

Regional statistics

To get you started in preparing a profile of your local community, the following is a series of tables with data on new and long-standing minority communities in Canada. You will note that the largest minority group in Canada is the Canadian German community, which forms the largest minority community in all provinces and territories except Quebec and Ontario. In Quebec and Ontario, the Canadian Italian community constitutes the largest minority group.

These tables present Census data on ethnocultural minority communities in the country as a whole, in each province and territory and in six major cities. For Canada, Quebec, Ontario, Montreal and Toronto, the tables include information on the 10 largest ethnocultural minority communities. For the other provinces, territories and cities, the top five ethnocultural minority communities are noted. For all areas the tables list the five fastest-growing minority communities, that is, those communities that grew by 50 percent or more between 1986 and 1991. In some areas, fewer than five minority communities grew at such a rapid rate. For Canada as a whole, seven communities grew by 50 percent or more over the five-year period. Also included are tables on mother tongue according to province and language, and a table on home language.

You can get information about the size and rate of growth of ethnocultural minority communities in your area by contacting community representatives and local social service agencies, such as schools, health care institutions, community clinics and other organizations that work with the communities. Local school boards can tell you how many immigrant children are enrolled in schools; community agencies and cultural organizations can help you to determine the approximate size of minority communities and the settlement patterns.

Canada
Population: 27 000 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 200 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Italian
  3. Ukrainian
  4. Dutch
  5. Polish
  6. Scandinavian
  7. Chinese
  8. South Asian
  9. Jewish
  10. Black
  1. Latin, Central, South American
  2. Lebanese
  3. Caribbean
  4. West Asian
  5. Filipino
  6. Chinese
  7. South Asian

Atlantic Region
Population: 2 300 00

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 10 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Dutch
  3. Italian
  4. Black
  5. Scandinavian
  1. Balkan
  2. Scandinavian
  3. Caribbean
  4. Japanese
  5. Austrian

Newfoundland and Labrador
Population: 560 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 1 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Dutch
  3. Scandinavian
  4. Italian
  5. Chinese
  1. Balkan
  2. Romanian
  3. Austrian
  4. Latin, Central, South American
  5. Black, Caribbean

Prince Edward Island
Population: 128 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 500 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Dutch
  3. Scandinavian
  4. Italian
  5. Ukrainian
  1. Latin, Central, South American
  2. Romanian
  3. Swiss
  4. Swedish
  5. Hungarian

Nova Scotia
Population: 890 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 2 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Dutch
  3. Scandinavian
  4. Italian
  5. Polish
  1. Scandinavian
  2. Japanese
  3. Balkan
  4. Austrian
  5. Danish

New Brunswick
Population: 716 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 2 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Dutch
  3. Scandinavian
  4. Italian
  5. Polish
  1. West Asian
  2. Baltic
  3. Caribbean
  4. Czech and Slovak
  5. Chinese

Quebec
Population: 6 810 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 35 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. Italian
  2. Jewish
  3. German
  4. Arab
  5. Black
  6. Greek
  7. Portuguese
  8. Chinese
  9. Latin, Central South American
  10. Indo-Chinese
  1. Lebanese
  2. Haitian
  3. Caribbean
  4. Latin, Central, South American
  5. Filipino

Montreal
Population: 3 090 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 28 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. Italian
  2. Jewish
  3. Black
  4. German
  5. Greek
  6. Chinese
  7. Portuguese
  8. Indo-Chinese
  9. Lebanese
  10. Spanish
  1. Haitian
  2. Caribbean
  3. Filipino
  4. Romanian
  5. Russian

Ontario
Population: 9 980 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 75 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. Italian
  2. Jewish
  3. Black
  4. German
  5. Greek
  6. Chinese
  7. Portuguese
  8. Indo-Chinese
  9. Lebanese
  10. Spanish
  1. Haitian
  2. Caribbean
  3. Filipino
  4. Romanian
  5. Russian

Toronto
Population: 3 860 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 75 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. Italian
  2. Chinese
  3. German
  4. South Asian
  5. Black
  6. Jewish
  7. Portuguese
  8. Polish
  9. Ukrainian
  10. Greek
  1. Lebanese
  2. Vietnamese
  3. Chinese
  4. South Asian
  5. Romanian

Prairies
Population: 4 570 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 250 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Ukrainian
  3. Scandinavian
  4. Dutch
  5. Polish
  1. West Asian
  2. Latin, Central, South American
  3. Lebanese
  4. Russian

Manitoba
Population: 1 080 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 59 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Ukrainian
  3. Polish
  4. Dutch
  5. Scandinavian
  1. West Asian
  2. Latin, Central, South American
  3. Russian
  4. Lebanese
  5. Caribbean

Winnipeg
Population: 645 600

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 22 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Ukrainian
  3. Polish
  4. Dutch
  5. Filipino
  1. Lebanese
  2. Russian
  3. West Asian

Saskatchewan
Population: 976 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 44 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Ukrainian
  3. Scandinavian
  4. Polish
  5. Dutch
  1. Latin, Central, South American

Alberta
Population: 2 519 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 124 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Ukrainian
  3. Scandinavian
  4. Dutch
  5. Polish
  1. West Asian
  2. Latin, Central, South American
  3. Lebanese
  4. Filipino
  5. Ukrainian

Calgary
Population: 748 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 31 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Ukrainian
  3. Dutch
  4. Chinese
  5. Polish
  1. Lebanese
  2. Russian
  3. Filipino

Edmonton
Population: 832 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 36 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Ukrainian
  3. Polish
  4. Dutch
  5. Chinese
  1. Lebanese
  2. Filipino

British Columbia
Population: 3 248 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 177 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Scandinavian
  3. Chinese
  4. Dutch
  5. Ukrainian
  1. Latin, Central, South American
  2. West Asian
  3. Lebanese
  4. Filipino
  5. Indo-Chinese

Vancouver
Population: 1 584 000

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 70 000 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Chinese
  3. South Asian
  4. Ukrainian
  5. Dutch
  1. Lebanese
  2. West Asian
  3. Vietnamese
  4. Filipino
  5. Chinese

Northwest Territories
Population: 57 400

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 750 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Scandinavian
  3. Ukrainian
  4. Dutch
  5. Polish
  1. Arab
  2. Romanian
  3. Austrian
  4. South Asian
  5. Russian

Yukon Territory
Population: 27 700

Largest ethnocultural minority communities
- over 650 population

Fastest-growing ethnocultural minority communities

  1. German
  2. Scandinavian
  3. Ukrainian
  4. Dutch
  5. Polish
  1. Japanese
  2. Filipino
  3. Greek
  4. Czech and Slovak
  5. Portuguese

Mother tongue, non-official languages

Region

Percentage distribution by region

Canada

13.4

Newfoundland

.9

Prince Edward Island

1.2

Nova Scotia

2.2

New Brunswick

1.2

Quebec

7.7

Ontario

17.7

Manitoba

19.4

Saskatchewan

12.8

Alberta

14.5

British Columbia

17.2

Yukon

7.5

N.W.T.

42.2

Mother tongue, 100% data
(Combined single and multiple responses)
Languages in numerical order of importance

Languages

Total Canada

Italian

512 005

Chinese

492 400

German

475 710

Portugese

211 040

Ukrainian

196 160

Spanish

186 255

Dutch

138 755

Panjabi

134 685

Greek

129 685

Arabic

119 190

Tagalog (Filipino)

110 435

Vietnamese

82 745

Hungarian

81 865

Croatian

40 440

Persian (Farsi)

40 215

Hindi

39 560

Gujarati

38 920

Russian

38 415

Korean

34 765

Tamil

30 220

Japanese

29 615

Finnish

27 855

Urdu

27 350

Czech

26 990

Armenian

26 455

Yiddish

26 240

Romanian

23 060

Danish

20 445

Slovak

17 750

Khmer (Cambodian)

15 125

Macedonian

14 935

Hebrew

13 855

Norwegian

13 845

Swedish

12 840

Lao

12 680

Serbian

12 330

Estonian

11 335

Lithuanian

11 070

Latvian

10 785

Slovenian

9 635

Turkish

9 310

Bengali

8 650

Maltese

8 360

Flemish

8 235

Serbo-Croatian

5 105

Indonesian

4 765

Bulgarian

4 305

Gaelic

4 035

Icelandic

3 730

Malayalam

3 540

Sinhalese

3 050

Thai

2 900

Welsh

2 070

Home language, 20% sample data
(Combined single and multiple responses)
Languages in numerical order of importance

Languages

Total Canada

Chinese

430 090

Italian

288 290

Portuguese

152 530

Spanish

145 045

German

134 460

Panjabi

123 775

Polish

117 150

Greek

93 160

Arabic

82 450

Vietnamese

79 585

Tagalog (Filipino)

75 390

Ukrainian

49 995

Persian (Farsi)

34 560

Hungarian

31 175

Korean

30 025

Gujarati

29 030

Tamil

26 825

Hindi

26 285

Croatian

25 595

Armenian

22 650

Urdu

22 565

Dutch

19 915

Japanese

17 355

Russian

17 165

Khmer (Cambodian)

15 015

Romanian

14 055

Lao

11 975

Czech

11 815

Macedonian

9 515

Hebrew

8 745

Finnish

8 490

Yiddish

8 020

Serbian

7 875

Bengali

7 045

Slovak

6 445

Estonian

6 220

Turkish

6 190

Lithuanian

5 170

Latvian

5 050

Slovenian

3 340

Serbo-Croatian

3 000

Bulgarian

2 790

Maltese

2 715

Indonesian

2 500

Danish

2 380

Swedish

2 015

Malayalam

1 635

Thai

1 615

Flemish

1 280

Sinhalese

1 195

Norwegian

950

Gaelic

340

Icelandic

290

Welsh

200

CHAPTER THREE

Bringing Your Library to the Community

For some immigrants and new Canadians, the library does not seem to be a welcoming place. Some people are not familiar with the concept of a public library, having come from countries where libraries, or the availability of books for public use, does not exist. In other countries, libraries are used only for research and formal study, rather than for more general communication purposes. Most library users who speak a language other than English or French tend to perceive libraries as book-borrowing centres rather than information sources.

Without visiting a library some people may think of it as another one of "those government offices" where they have had unpleasant experiences in the past. Such views will keep potential users from going to the library unless they are introduced to it by friends or family. In fact, surveys of library users who speak languages other than English or French have found that 60 percent of respondents found out about the library from friends or family; 19 percent came to the library on their own initiative after seeing it.3

Use the community network

Many members of ethnocultural minority groups who use the library borrow items for other people, including children, friends, spouses and parents. This suggests that, by reaching some community members, libraries can make themselves accessible to other family members and friends. Libraries could promote their services, for example, by distributing information booklets or leaflets to elementary schools. Children could then inform parents who do not speak English or French about your library's multilingual collection and services for groups. And by accompanying their children for library tours or excursions to borrow children's books, parents could learn how the library can benefit the whole family and the community.

Experience has shown that, by the time children are old enough to go to the library on their own, they are "too old" to be counted on to bring information home to parents and others. However, if the information is made available to young children, they may get into the habit of borrowing books or periodicals from the multilingual collection for parents, family members or friends.

Get information directly to the community

Librarians can visit continuing education classes, classes for English as a Second Language, citizenship preparation courses, clubs such as mothers' groups, cultural and social clubs and church groups, to introduce library services to people who may not be familiar with the range of services available. Establishing contact with local agencies that represent or serve minority communities can be helpful for both the agencies and the library: libraries can help the agencies by lending equipment, providing meeting space and referrals and by making information about the agency available at the library; agency personnel can help the library by supplying resource people to make presentations in their area of expertise for staff or for the public.

These contacts can help to establish valuable links with people who are recognized in the community and who often help out with translation at schools, doctors' offices, and law firms. You will find it useful to compile a reference list of staff or people in the community whom you can contact for help in translations from or into a specific language.

Community leaders can also help you and your staff to learn about the importance to a community of particular items in a multilingual collection. For example, the Etobicoke Public Library in Metropolitan Toronto offered a training session to introduce staff to three local ethnic newspapers. The newspapers' editors were invited to describe their philosophy, the audience to whom the paper was directed and the scope of coverage (international, local), and to answer staff questions about the papers. Staff members reported a much greater awareness of the importance of the newspapers to the communities, and increased confidence in referring patrons to these papers.

A library administrator should also meet with representatives from the local ethnic media - the press and television and radio stations if such exist - to establish a cooperative working relationship for future events. Strategies to use the media to promote the library among ethnocultural minority communities are described in Chapter Four.

Train staff for outreach and multicultural service

Staff who are involved in outreach activities and in providing services to the public need opportunities to explore issues and challenges that can arise when dealing with a diverse clientele and a multilingual collection. Multicultural training sessions can help staff to understand their own cultural perceptions and become aware of cultural biases in society generally. These sessions let people explore the concept of multiculturalism, the provisions of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and its effect on services provided by public institutions.

You might consider organizing a workshop session with other libraries in your region, asking a representative of a library with an extensive multilingual collection to lead the session. Training workshops for public library personnel might explore the following issues:

  • why libraries need multicultural book collections and services;
  • challenges in serving a diverse clientele;
  • communicating with patrons who do not speak English or French;
  • the "culture shock" that patrons from minority groups may experience when visiting a library for the first time.

Help staff to deal with a multilingual collection

A workshop can also explore the important role libraries can fulfill by providing materials in additional languages and discussing why some staff members might feel overextended when working with a multilingual collection. They may lack confidence in helping people to gain access to the collection. Training specifically tailored to deal with issues relating to multilingual collections can help staff to feel more confident and comfortable with these resources and help them to understand how the collection meets the needs of the community.

Workshops dealing with the management and use of multilingual collections and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) collections can help staff to overcome psychological barriers to handling materials in other languages. A workshop could orient staff to a library's multilingual collection, describe how the material is selected, acquired and processed, and the means for bibliographic control. Staff could learn about the library's participation in regional cooperatives. The difficulty in acquiring books in certain languages due to political or economic problems might be discussed along with cataloguing problems, such as those for books in non-Romanized languages, and their solutions. Library policy about developing and promoting these collections might also be discussed. A similar orientation to the ESL collection would help staff to understand the various categories and how best to assist patrons who request materials from this collection.

A workshop leader, perhaps the manager of a multilingual collection in a major library, could help staff to become familiar with the languages collected by the library. Staff might listen to tapes of the languages and study their written form to identify clues to the language. The session could also explore:

  • Roman and non-Romanized scripts, giving examples of languages that are read from right to left instead of left to right;
  • general background information about the origin of languages from various continents, sub-continents and countries, such as the national languages of Pakistan, Bangladesh or Egypt;
  • the differences between the Gujarati, Urdu and Hindi languages.

Such information would help staff to serve immigrants from countries where these languages are used and would give them confidence in their ability to assist users. A workshop could also focus on recent international publications. Staff could become familiar with the names of important fiction and non-fiction writers or titles from, for example, Spain, Greece, the Indian sub-continent and China. These works may be written in the author's language or translated into English. Works available in the multilingual collections in the library could be identified.

Prepare a card of translations of questions and statements
about the library

Examples:

  • I do not speak your language.
  • Do you understand English?
  • Write down your phone number. Someone will call you.
  • Do you have a friend who speaks English?
  • There are books in your language in section...
  • Do you have a library card?
  • Do you live in (this community)?
  • Complete this form so that you can use the library.

Orient new patrons to the library

Workshops might let staff explore the library through the eyes of a new immigrant who does not understand library jargon, or who feels threatened by some library policies such as the requirement to give proof of one's name and address. Training will help staff to manage these situations and make patrons feel comfortable in the library. Customer service training can also include methods, such as depersonalization, to assist staff in dealing with conflict. Issues for discussion could include:

  • the problems that library jargon such as bar-code, call number, check out, citation, cross-reference, terminal, stacks, due date, and closed access present to a new library user;
  • the anxiety felt by a library patron who does not understand what staff are saying;
  • the pleasure and relief one feels in finding materials in one's own language.

Improve cross-cultural communication

When considering why libraries should provide multicultural book collections and services, staff can discuss negative comments such as "people should learn to speak English when they come to Canada" from other staff or patrons. Training in cross-cultural communication can help staff to appreciate the difficult process of learning a new language and adapting to a different culture. Communication problems with patrons who speak languages other than English or French can frustrate staff and create potential conflict or complaints. Training can help staff members to anticipate patrons' needs by looking for cues in body language. Cross-cultural training provides useful techniques for communicating with patrons who speak other languages.

Cultural differences often dictate the amount of eye contact between people conversing, the volume or tone of voice used, and hand or body gestures. Without an understanding of cultural norms, staff may perceive some behaviours as rude and resent serving members of that group. Training will help staff to understand cultural differences and the reasons for them, and provide appropriate guidelines on how to handle specific behaviours.

The cultures of some countries (and some native-born Canadians!) prescribe gender roles that go against the modern norms of Canadian society. Training in cultural awareness can help staff to understand the impact of culture on behaviour. Assertiveness training can enable staff to respond to such situations in ways that limit the potential for conflict.

Establish a rapport

Many library patrons from minority linguistic communities may have a basic knowledge of English or French, but staff will be challenged to explain library procedures in ways that can be understood and to understand patrons' information requests. The book, Working Together: How to Become More Effective in a Multicultural Organization by George F. Simons, provides useful tips to help staff in these situations. When you are entering a conversation, Simons suggests trying to match the pace and timing of the person with whom you are speaking. This may establish more rapport than the content of what you say to the person. Excellent salespersons often do this. They take their cues from their client and match the ebb and flow of the client's speech.

Sometimes people learn a second language by reading and studying rather than by conversing with native speakers. Simons points out that they are able to compose what they want to say, but still are not well understood or fail to understand others well because of unfamiliarity with accents or because of different language pacing. It is helpful to realize this possibility and realize that thinking and speaking in a foreign language can be as fatiguing as hard physical work.

To make sure that you understand what the person has said and to ensure that you have been understood, simply repeat back in your own words what you heard, or ask the other person, "Could you tell me how you understand what we have said so far?"

Empathize with the listener

Simons presents some further points to consider when communicating with patrons who speak limited English or French:

1. Speak clearly but do not raise your voice. Talking loudly to a non-English speaker as if he or she were deaf is a natural reaction but it is very disconcerting for the listener.

2. Speak slowly throughout. Try not to speed up as you get more interested or more involved in your subject.

3. Repeat when you have not been understood. If you have stated something as simply as possible and it has not been understood, try repeating the same sentence again. Don't change the words. If you do, you are giving the person a whole new task. If you repeat the words you used the first time, they may begin to make sense.

4. Use words the person is likely to know. If there are several words which mean the same, use the simplest and most common: "start" and "end", not "commence" and "terminate". It is too easy to slip into jargon or complicated language without being aware of it.

5. Be careful of idioms. The meaning may not be at all clear to the person: don't say "fed up", "start from scratch", or "red tape", for example.

To avoid cultural misunderstandings, Simons suggests that you pay attention to how others gesture and move. If these actions are different from what you expect, consider that they may mean something slightly or even radically different from your interpretations. Ask questions about gestures that seem puzzling to you. If a certain gesture is embarrassing to members of a specific culture, people may be reluctant to tell you, so ask someone you trust to tell you the truth. Remember that there may be unexpected barriers to finding out about cultural habits: for example, men from some cultures may not be able to explain certain gestures that women of the same background make and vice versa, so you may have to ask more than one individual.

Until you find out what a gesture or movement means, don't imitate what you don't fully understand. To do so invites misunderstandings. Apologize if you misinterpret another's gesture. Then ask for correct information. Do others the favour of telling them if they are using inappropriate gestures that could embarrass them or someone else. Tell them in a way that does not make them "lose face".

Use plain and simple language

Some additional tips on communicating with people who speak another language are provided in Promoting Library Awareness in Ethnic Communities, by Grace Lui. Lui recommends speaking in brief, simple sentences, rather than long, compound or complex ones. Don't ask "either/or" questions, she advises; pose two questions instead. Avoid negative questions such as "Don't you like mysteries?", since they can easily be misinterpreted. Lui reminds library staff to give time for the patron to translate mentally what they have said. Whatever happens, she recommends that staff keep smiling!

CHAPTER FOUR

Bringing the Community to Your Library

You can take steps to make your library a welcoming place for members of ethnocultural minority communities by offering programs and handouts that describe library services in minority languages. Outside the library, you can use your contacts with the local media, including radio, television, and print sources, have outreach representatives at local events, and distribute promotional flyers to publicize your library's services.

Within the library

Because many immigrants are intimidated by government institutions and feel uncomfortable in libraries, you might consider any of a number of ideas to encourage people who are not familiar with Canadian public libraries. A colourful banner outside the library can welcome all users to the library in English, French and other languages used in the community. Directional signs in various languages can point out the circulation and reference desks and locations of the multilingual collection, washrooms, meeting rooms, and subject departments. Multilingual instruction signs can help new library patrons to find a book or use a computer. Consider having application forms for library cards translated into other languages, along with summaries of library policies on book returns and fines.

The three B's: Brochures, Bookmarks and Booklists

A practical approach to communicating information about library services is through the use of attractive brochures. For example, the Toronto Public Library's brochure is available in 30 languages and describes library collections and materials available for borrowing, programs for people from all age groups, and services for newcomers and people who need materials such as large print publications or videotapes. Instructions on how to obtain a library card and information on library locations and hours are included. The translated brochures fit into a pocket in the English brochure, which makes it easy to assemble kits for each language.

Bookmarks with text in various languages are another cost-effective method of promoting collections or services. Booklists in the reader's language provide useful information on materials in the library's multilingual collection, including books, newspapers, magazines, and audiovisual items. Photocopies of book covers or publicity about videos or tapes can be presented in a binder near the collection to help interested patrons to discover the library's resources.

Multicultural library programs

Library programs that celebrate the heritage and customs of ethnocultural communities can attract immigrants to the library and give staff an opportunity to introduce these new patrons to the variety of available services. Major programs can be planned around events such as the Chinese New Year, or libraries can set a "Multicultural Day" or "International Week". Films, crafts, food, music, dance and stories told by community members will attract many new patrons from ethnocultural minority communities.

Most libraries have storytimes for local children. Consider setting up a bilingual storytime program or puppet shows to help children to master a heritage language and strengthen cultural traditions. Folklore, song and rhyme will encourage children to develop a strong ethnocultural identity, while school activities serve to integrate the new generation into Canadian society. These activities also help English- and French-speaking children to achieve greater awareness and understanding of other cultures.

Displays that highlight the cultural heritages of local ethnocultural minority communities reassure immigrants that the library serves all members of society. Your staff can create displays with community groups. Photographs, statues, art, books, and crafts can all describe a minority group's culture, history, and heritage.

Let all community members know about multicultural events by including descriptions in library newsletters. Community members can also help in the preparation of announcements of other community events if you wish to include these in a community calendar.

The Surrey Public Library

Increasingly, libraries are becoming aware that traditional methods of promoting programs and collections often do not work as well among members of ethnocultural minority groups. An example of an effective new approach is the use of the "Celebrate Heritage Cultures of Canada" program organized by the Surrey Public Library in Surrey, British Columbia, in November 1989. In 1990, the library won the prestigious John Cotton Dana Library Public Relations Award for this outstanding program.

The District of Surrey is one of the largest growing municipalities in the province, with a population of over 200 000 and more than 21 languages spoken in the community. Almost one in five residents speak a mother tongue other than English. The library wanted to learn more about needs and preferences regarding multicultural services among members of three large minority communities: German, Panjabi and Vietnamese. What they discovered helped the library to direct its outreach and promotion efforts in the most effective manner.4

The library planned a week-long program that included eighteen multicultural celebrations that would help it to reach those who are not traditional library users. The event would also help other area residents to learn about and develop an understanding of the many cultures within their community. The program's theme was "unity through cultural diversity".

Celebrate Heritage Cultures of Canada

The "Celebrate Heritage Cultures of Canada" program was launched by more than 700 elementary school children taking part in hands-on workshops offered by members of many ethnocultural minority communities. Workshops topics included:

  • turban-wrapping and sari-draping demonstrations;
  • Japanese origami class;
  • Indian classical dance demonstration and explanation of music, after which audience members were taught several dance movements.
  • Throughout the week the library sponsored a wide range of activities designed to interest the community as a whole. Activities included:
    • a day-long seminar on world religions given by an expert in comparative religions;
    • an arts and crafts show and bake sale, including specialty Christmas baking from the Norwegian community;
    • skits and songs from England, Scotland and Ireland, followed by tea and crumpets.

A Christmas Tree-decorating event, a Canadian tradition, invited members of all cultures to participate. In promoting this program, library staff tried to reach out to new Canadians to make them more aware of the library's services and resources. The program successfully established new links with ethnocultural minority communities and the ethnic media. The program's coordinators noted that working relationships and cooperative networks within the community were as important for long-term promotion of library services to ethnocultural minority groups as the actual event. The program was promoted in eight languages, through in-house brochures and handouts, news releases to English and ethnic media, paid newspaper advertisements, and public service announcements on local radio stations.

Promote your library's services

In recent years studies by marketing agencies such as Ethnic/Ad Inc. in Toronto have found that the strong community ties among ethnocultural minority groups mean that local ethnic media are the most effective means of advertising a service or product to these groups. Libraries wishing to create an awareness of their services, collections and programs can do so most effectively through public service announcements and commercials on ethnic radio and television stations.

In the United States, the Center for Policy Development asked librarians to identify the types of publicity they use to promote library services to minority groups. Methods mentioned by more than 50 percent of responding librarians included flyers and notices, word of mouth, schools and community newspapers. When asked which publicity methods were most effective, the most frequent responses were word of mouth, radio, community newspapers and other means. Among the least effective strategies, according to the librarians, were flyers and notices and the use of general newspapers.

Some cultures are less comfortable with print materials and are more inclined to use audiovisual media. An effective means to reach the Portuguese and Italian markets, for example, is through ethnic television or radio. In community consultations during the summer of 1993, the Canadian government found television effective for communicating information to first-generation Canadians. Some communities stated that people place more trust in televised information than in print.

Advertising studies have revealed a television penetration rate as high as 85 percent within Toronto's Portuguese community.5 A media survey by Ethnic Research found that Italian, Portuguese, Greek and Spanish language television are used more than any other type of ethnic-language media in Toronto. They found that, of those interviewed, more than half the Canadians of Italian heritage and almost all respondents in the Canadian Greek, Portuguese and Hispanic communities reported watching and listening to heritage language programs daily. The study's authors stated that "in a highly audio-visually oriented market, these four groups increase their viewing as the amount of ethnic programming increases." Radio is also very important to ethnocultural minority groups, who listen during times when ethnic television programming is not available.6

In Ontario there are approximately 95 hours of Chinese programming per week, 80 hours of Italian television programming, 52 hours of Hispanic, 21 hours of Portuguese and 15 hours of Greek programming. There are about 1 155 hours of heritage language radio programming in some 37 languages. And there are 200 ethnic publications in 45 languages.7

Public libraries might consider participating in local ethnic television or radio programming, since both are primary sources for ethnocultural community news and information. Community representatives who are involved in library services, such as a member of your or another library's multicultural advisory committee, could give an interview about library programs of interest to the community. You could also approach television producers about doing a documentary on the public library, a topic unlikely to have been explored in the past. Special events at the library, such as a Chinese storyhour, might be taped and shown on a local television station at another time.

The cost of producing public service announcements need not be high. There is strong support among businesses owned by members of ethnocultural minority groups for services such as those offered by your library. Many provide charitable contributions for the production of public service announcements.

Include minority group members in television announcements

Ethnic/Ad Inc. has several suggestions for developing public service announcements for television. Ethnic/Ad points out that, while potential new patrons need to know of the library's existence and services, the message is most effective when it is delivered by people with whom the audience members can identify. Spokespersons must have used the library to be able to recommend it. Announcements showing minority families using the local library are particularly appealing. A public service announcement could show members of a family involved in various activities at the library. For example, a mother and child might be seen attending a cultural storyhour, the father reading an international newspaper, and grandparents selecting books from the multilingual collection. The message would emphasize the fact that the library has something for everyone in the community. Reinforcing the message that the library is a fun, welcoming place attracts those who might not know about the library and its services.

Ethnic television and radio programs tend to be concentrated in urban centres in Canada. For smaller communities, the ethnic press provides an excellent alternative.

The ethnic press

Newsletters, magazines and newspapers are widely read by members of ethnocultural minority groups. You can find out about publications in your region through CARD: Canadian Advertising Rates and Data, published by Maclean Hunter, or the biannual Canadian EthnoGuide, published by Ethnomedia Monitor Services. Ethnoguide lists more than 500 publications, radio and TV programs serving minority communities across Canada.

Most ethnic press publications provide extensive coverage of community events and local programs. Libraries can make good use of these sources by sending press releases about special programs, collections, and activities. Invitations to the editors to attend such events are a good way to establish and maintain contact with the community.

Advertising general library services or collections can also be done for much less money in the ethnic media than in the general media. Some public service organizations have found that editors of local newsletters or magazines will provide free advertising space when available if they have appropriate advertising copy on hand.

Telephone directories

You may also wish to consider advertising in the white or yellow pages of ethnic telephone books. These directories are used regularly by people who do not speak English. For many newcomers, the telephone is the most important link to friends and family and to local businesses. Placing advertisements in this source would send the message that the library is endorsed and accepted by the community.

Flyers and posters

A popular method of advertising programs or events is by distributing flyers or posters. Keep in mind, however, that public library notices and information flyers have been found to be one of the least effective methods of publicity for potential users in minority communities. Some marketing tips for this form of advertising include:

  • Post flyers in places where members of ethnocultural minority communities meet, work or shop: supermarkets, retail outlets, community language schools, credit unions, convenience stores, religious centres, senior citizen and youth centres, restaurants, and sports centres.
  • Develop a mailing list and mail flyers and other publicity material to individuals and clubs who can distribute them to wider audiences.
  • Distribute leaflets or flyers, translated into various languages, to local ethnocultural minority communities through the Canada Post "Postal Walk" service.

Translation and "transcreation"

When dealing with ethnocultural minority communities, consider the "trust factor". When messages are presented in the reader's language, rather than in English or French, the interpretation level is higher, and people place greater trust in the message. For all forms of advertising, both print and audiovisual, it is important to remember that messages must be "transcreated", rather than translated. Nelda Lopez-Rizza Di Sardi of Ethnic/Ad advises that all creative work, including brochures, commercials and print ads, must take into account the cultural aspects of the language community. Consider that some phrases in English may have little or no meaning in another language, or may be construed to mean something entirely different from what was intended. For example, the phrase "save for a rainy day": when literally translated, it was understood by Hispanics to mean "save for a day when it is raining".8 It is important to have professional translators involved in the preparation and translation of public service announcements or brochures intended for public distribution.

CHAPTER FIVE

Multicultural Staff Training

As well as training to enable staff to manage multilingual collections and develop strategies for cross-cultural communication (see Chapter Three), staff training should focus on cultural diversity in customer service and on race relations and employment equity. This training can help library staff to become sensitized to their clients and develop a degree of empathy with various cultural norms.

Staff may feel inadequate when dealing with people from other ethnocultural backgrounds and unsure of how well they have helped a patron. Training will help staff to learn techniques to get feedback from patrons so that they can feel more confident about the effectiveness of their service.

Racially intolerant comments directed at staff members or patrons by other patrons can be demoralizing for staff and need to be handled appropriately by supervisors or managers. Race relations training for all staff will help them to deal with such incidents and will inform staff of their legal rights and responsibilities. Similarly, any staff members who express racial intolerance by complaining about the employment of members of ethnocultural minority groups can undermine employee morale. Training in race relations can help all employees to understand library policy, government laws and their own responsibilities.

Multicultural Workshops

Workshops for staff training on multicultural themes can include sensitivity training, race relations and a review of multicultural legislation and library policies.

The sample case studies described below were taken from "Training for Library Work in Multicultural Britain" by Margaret Kendall, in Handbook of Library Training Practice, Volume 2. The cases were used as part of a course on "library customer services in a multi-racial society" for library assistants in Sheffield, England. Participants were asked to read the cases, discuss them in small groups, and make notes. Responses for each situation were then shared with the larger group. Participants were encouraged to describe similar situations they had encountered and discuss their response.

Additional cases were taken from a "Cross cultural communications" course prepared for library assistants in Bolton.

Sensitivity training

Sensitivity training helps staff to understand the experience of newcomers to Canada and empathize with some of the emotions associated with culture shock. Methods and exercises that professional trainers might use include:

  • the "Emigration Fantasy";
  • "BaFá BaFá: A Cross-Cultural Simulation Game";
  • "Peter's Projection", an upside-down map of the world;
  • a mock lecture in English where the meaning is obscured by substituting a few key words with nonsense.

The "Emigration Fantasy" is a pictorial story that places the participant in the situation of moving to an Arab country after having learned some basic language and cultural skills. The fantasy increases participants' awareness of their own cultural assumptions and interpretations, and helps them to identify with the difficulties of moving to a new culture.

"BaFá BaFá: A Cross-Cultural Simulation Game" by R. Gary Shirts, helps staff to examine their own perceptions and misconceptions of other cultures by having them take on roles and customs associated with fictitious cultural groups.

"Peter's Projection", an upside-down map of the world, shows the "true size" of the world's continents and nations in relation to one another. The map helps participants to look at the world from a different point of view.

The mock English lecture enables participants to experience the difficulty of listening to a speech in another language by substituting key phrases with nonsense.

Case studies can help staff to develop skills for dealing with patrons who speak a variety of languages, but who have difficulty with English or French.

Case study

A Chinese-speaking man comes into the library and says something to you which you do not understand. Eventually you deduce that he wants to join the library and you give him an application form. You explain how to complete it, but it is obvious that he does not comprehend what you are saying.

What might you do?

Case study

An Asian person wants to join your library. The person speaks very little English and there is no staff member with multilingual skills. None of the necessary information has been translated, but the library does stock books in Asian languages. Several staff members try to assist, but are unable to communicate effectively. The person appears to get annoyed and leaves without joining.

  1. What was the person expecting of the library? Were these expectations met?
  2. What do you think the person feels at each stage of the encounter?
  3. Why does the person leave? What feelings does he or she have about the library and its staff?
  4. What effect will the encounter have had?
  5. What possible courses of action could prevent this from happening again?

Race relations workshop

Race relations workshops help staff to learn about racism and racial discrimination issues and how to deal effectively with those issues in the workplace. A workshop might include discussion of the following elements:

  • a review of multicultural legislation and policies;
  • an overview of multicultural library services;
  • training in human relations;
  • a review of employment equity principles.

It is useful for staff to review relevant local, provincial and federal legislation, as well as policies and objectives established by the library board. The Canadian Multiculturalism Act can be discussed along with Canada's immigration history. Staff could learn about the implications of multicultural legislation for public institutions such as libraries, and come to a clearer understanding of why the library has policies relating to multiculturalism.

It is also useful to present an overview of current trends in multicultural library services in Canada and around the world, and the long-range direction and policies that the library will follow. This will give staff a framework that will enable them to understand the importance of their work with ethnocultural minority communities.

Staff might also consider any racial comments they hear in their daily work. A professional cross-cultural communication moderator could lead group discussions about racial comments and supposed truths such as "Too many immigrants are allowed into Canada - we'll become overpopulated". The moderator might point out that:

  • without immigration, Canada's population will decrease because of the declining birthrate;
  • Canada needs to attract 150 000 immigrants every year to maintain a stable population into the next century;
  • many sectors of the economy would be hindered without immigrants;
  • every year tens of thousands of Canadians go to live in other countries.

The discussion could be followed by some background information on Canadian immigration policies over the years.

Workshops can also examine the forms that racism can take in public libraries: blocking information, isolating the person, not giving proper status, maintaining only "token" services or "goodwill gestures".

A case study similar to the following can help employees and managers learn to deal with the challenges and opportunities that diversity presents:

Case study

You are on the counter one night when a reader asks to reserve the new book by Catherine Cookson. You warn her that it might take several months to become available and she is obviously annoyed. She begins to complain bitterly about the amount of Afro-Caribbean poetry on a nearby display stand and says that it is a waste of money since no one reads it. She is a ratepayer, she says, and she is entitled to better service.

How should you react to this? What might you say to calm her down and explain library policy?

Suggested Answers:

  • Libraries aim to cater for everyone - people do want to read poetry. Afro-Caribbean poetry is borrowed by both black people and white people.
  • Compared with the amount of money that has been spent on English poetry in the past, the Afro-Caribbean collection is small.
  • Everyone pays rates and is entitled to have the books they want.
  • Multiple copies of Catherine Cookson's works are bought, whereas most books are only bought in single copies - but demand exceeds supply.
  • It is the law of the land that libraries provide for all people who want to use them.
  • If you'd like a full explanation of the library's policy, you could write to the Director.

Case study

One morning an Asian reader asks to reserve a particular book on the history of Islam. It is a book that goes with a series he has been listening to on the radio. You check the shelves, the catalogue, and Books in Print and you cannot trace it. The reader complains that he can never find any recent serious books on Islam in the library.

What would you say?

Human relations training

All staff members should be introduced to the concepts of working in a culturally diverse environment. Managers should learn about the ways in which cultural differences and racial stereotypes can affect management. There are methods to ensure that recruitment and hiring practices are appropriate. These methods include familiarity with provincial employment equity legislation, techniques to motivate and evaluate employees, and skills for managing a diverse workplace.

Employees can explore how to maintain good working relationships with co-workers or supervisors in a culturally diverse workplace and the importance of teamwork for the success of the organization.

CHAPTER SIX

Where Do We Go From Here?

Libraries that have provided multicultural library services for many years often create a Multicultural Services Committee to help board members to identify issues and needs in ethnocultural minority communities. Such a committee may also help to set priorities and recommend policies and directions for:

  • outreach and programming,
  • collection development,
  • recruitment, and
  • staff responsiveness and cultural awareness.

Committees are usually made up of representatives from ethnocultural minority communities and staff members, and meet regularly.

Reaching out to the community

By publicizing library services to ethnocultural minority communities, libraries can meet a fundamental goal: to provide information to all members of the community. As Canada's population becomes more diverse, libraries should consider the fact that minority populations tend not to use public libraries on their own initiative or without the support of the multicultural community. Like any other group in society, however, ethnocultural minority groups have identifiable information needs. The onus is therefore on libraries to reach out to minority communities in new ways. The marketing techniques outlined in earlier chapters will help members of ethnocultural minority groups to become established library users who will support Canadian public libraries.

Improving quality of service

People's attitudes are not easily changed, but training can help to ensure a tolerant environment. To operate effectively in the changing Canadian landscape, libraries need to explore opportunities for multicultural staff training. Libraries that have offered multicultural workshops have found that staff became more sensitive towards and accepting of the communities they serve, and so were better prepared to work with the public. The overall quality of customer service in these libraries has been improved. However, training in this area is not a "once only" event. Multicultural staff training should be viewed as part of a long-term activity to be incorporated into the library's overall training program.

The challenge and opportunity of diversity

Diversity presents challenges and opportunities for Canadian public libraries. Many challenges can be met through simple means such as establishing contact with representatives of ethnocultural minority communities, starting a small multilingual collection, and offering informal staff training. How extensive your library's multicultural programming becomes is up to you. A well-trained, flexible workforce and a growing number of library supporters will benefit your library and enhance your community's multicultural experience. Canadian public libraries are, after all, a world of information for all Canadians.

FOOTNOTES:

1A Review of Library Services for Multicultural Populations in the OLS - Trent Area: Final Report, prepared by the Institute of Environmental Research Inc. (May 1988), p. 24.

2Jennifer Ashby and Derek Whitehead, Not Enough to Read...The Report of a Survey of the Reading Interests of Six Migrant Communities in Melbourne (Melbourne: Working Group on Multicultural Library Services, 1988), pp. 56-58.

3Not Enough to Read, p. 40.

4Points extracted from Marketing Strategy: Provision of Multilingual Services Survey Public Library, a graduate studies research paper by John Collison, Marianne Hall and Franklin Wilies, 1989, p. 2.

5Interview with Madeline Ziniak, Director of Programme Development and Community Liaison at Channel Forty Seven Cable Four Television, Toronto.

6Nelda Lopez-Rizza di Sardi, "More Smorgasbord Than Melting Pot", Marketing (September 26, 1988), p. 3.

7Nelda Lopez-Rizza di Sardi, "Reaching a Unique Market", Ethnic Marketing (June 17, 1991), p. 1.

8"Reaching a Unique Market", p. 1.

SELECTIVE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Prepared by Alanna Kalnay

This selective annotated bibliography on multicultural library services is intended for librarians who are involved in providing services to multicultural communities, or who are in the process of establishing such services. The works cited are of a practical nature, although some classic articles and monographs discussing the philosophical reasons for multicultural library services have been included for background reading.

The works are arranged in alphabetic order by main entry in ten sections and a number of sub-sections. The bibliography was prepared in 1992 for a project on library services to multicultural groups, commissioned by the National Library of Canada and Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada. Several entries for 1993 and 1994 have been added.

Sections and Subsections

1.0 Policies and Guidelines
2.0 Demographics
3.0 Multicultural Library Services - General
3.1 Periodicals
3.2 General Works
3.3 Bibliographies
4.0 International Efforts
4.1 Canada
4.2 Other Countries
5.0 Multicultural Services to Groups
6.0 Promotion, Planning and Outreach
7.0 Professional and Staff Training
8.0 Collection Development
8.1 Children
8.2 Directories
9.0 Automation and Cataloguing
10.0 Audiovisual Materials and English as a Second Language

1.0 Policies and Guidelines

American Library Association. "Guidelines for Multilingual Materials Collection and Development and Library Services". RQ (Winter 1990): 269-271.

Policy guidelines for multilingual library services in the collection and selection of materials, programs, services, community relations, and staffing are outlined. Prepared by the Ad Hoc Multilingual Materials Subcommittee of the Reference and Adults Services Division Board (RASD) of the American Library Association in June 1990.

Canadian Library Association. "Guidelines for Multicultural Library Services in Canadian Public Libraries". Prepared by the Multilingual Services Interest Group, Canadian Library Association, August 1986. Feliciter 33, no. 6 (June 1987): 67.

The CLA policy guidelines for public library service to multicultural communities in Canada. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). Section on Library Services to Multi-Cultural Populations. Multicultural Communities: Guidelines for Service. Compiled by Anne Holmes and Derek Whitehead. London: The Section, 1987. 14 p.

These guidelines are intended to provide criteria for all types of libraries to assess current levels of service, to provide a basis for planning for services to additional groups, and to outline a basis for purchasing materials and providing service. They are international in scope, and can be used in conjunction with current library standards.

Library Association. Library and Information Services for Our Multicultural Society. London: The Library Association, October 1985. 4 p.

The official policy statement of the Library Association in Great Britain relating to multicultural library services. Reflecting the statutory responsibilities outlined in Britain's Race Relations Act 1976, this paper includes "recommendations in relation to services, staffing, training, professional education and the allocation of financial resources".

Working Group on Multicultural Library Services (Victoria). Standards for Multicultural Public Library Service. Melbourne: The Working Group and the Library Council of Victoria, 1982. 30 p.

The first detailed standards to be published for public library service in a multicultural context. Adopted by the Library Council of Victoria in Australia, and now used as a basis for public library planning and service throughout Australia and the world.

2.0 Demographics

Multicultural Canada: A Graphic Overview. Ottawa: Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada, 1989. 81 p.

Using bar and pie charts, the report discusses Canada's ethnic and linguistic diversity. Five areas are covered: Ethnic Origin, Language, Visible Minorities, Aboriginal Peoples, and Immigration.

Ontario: A Diverse and Changing Society. A Report on Selected Demographic Trends. Ethnocultural Data Base Materials, Series III. Special Report no. 5. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Citizenship, 1991. 34 p.

Snapshot of Ontario's current cultural diversity, with predictions of what the composition of society will be like in the year 2011 if present immigration trends continue. Includes graphs and maps.

3.0 Multicultural Library Services - General

3.1 Periodicals

EMIE Bulletin: Ethnic Materials and Information Exchange Round Table. [American Library Association], 1981- . Edited by David Cohen. Flushing, NY: Queen's College Graduate School of Library and Information Studies. Quarterly.

Ethnic Forum: Bulletin of Ethnic Studies and Ethnic Bibliography. Vol. 1, 1980- . Edited by Lubomyr R. Wynar. Kent, OH: Kent State University. Semi-annual.

Matters Multicultural: The Newsletter of the Multicultural Services Guild of the Ontario Library Association. Vol. 1, 1988-1992. Edited by Jaswinder Gundara and Lillian Petroff. Toronto: Ontario Library Association. Three/year.

Contains articles on current issues in multicultural librarianship, developments in the field, and lists of workshops and conferences.

Multicultural Libraries: Journal of the Working Group on Multicultural Library Services (Victoria). Vol. I, 1979- . Edited by Anne Holmes. Victoria, Australia: Multicultural Library Services. Quarterly.

Multicultural Review: Dedicated to a Better Understanding of Ethnic, Racial and Religious Diversity. Vol. 1, 1992 -. Edited by Brenda Mitchell-Powell. Westport, CT: GP Subscription Publications. Quarterly. Incorporates Journal of Multicultural Librarianship (1986-1992).

3.2 General Works

Akhtar, Parvez. "Meeting Ethnic Minorities Needs". Assistant Librarian 77, no. 3 (October 1984): 120-122.

General discussion of multicultural library services within the British context, with reference to understanding cultural reading preferences, locating selection aids for collection development, acquisition and cataloguing concerns, and promotion.

Campbell, Harry C. "Worldwide Immigration and Its Relation to Library Services: Do Planners 'Pay It No Mind'?" In Library Services to Ethnocultural Minorities. Edited by Leonard Wertheimer. Library Trends 29, no. 2 (Fall 1980): 207-214.

Summarizes some of the considerations in providing service to immigrant populations.

Cohen, David. "Ethnicity in Librarianship: A Rationale for Multiethnic Library Services in a Heterogeneous Society". In Library Services to Ethnocultural Minorities. Edited by Leonard Wertheimer. Library Trends 29, no. 2 (Fall 1980): 179-190.

Examines the behaviour and attitudes that distinguish different ethnic groups in terms of providing better library services.

Cooke, Madeleine. "Multi-Cultural Library Services". In British Librarianship and Information Work 1981-1985. Vol. I. General Libraries and the Profession. Edited by David W. Bromley and Angela M. Allott. London: The Library Association, 1988. P. 203-218.

Discusses developments in multicultural librarianship in Britain, with particular emphasis on activities in the early and mid-1980s. Topics include models of service, special needs, budgetary implications, cooperative initiatives, staffing and employment concerns, and professional education.

Datta, Suman and Sylva Simsova. Cultural Diversity and Librairies: Today and Tomorrow. London: PNL Press, 1989. 64 p.

Discusses methods of determining demographic information about ethnic minorities; perceptions of libraries held by minority groups; problems encountered in serving ethnic minorities in a public library; policies relating to multicultural library services; and human resources needed to provide such services. Written from a British perspective.

Elliott, Pirkko. Ethnic Minorities and Public Libraries: Self-Help and Opportunities for Co-operation. Bradford, England: MCB University Press, 1986. 63 p.

The first study to examine self-help minority organizations in Great Britain and the cooperation between these organizations and public libraries and other relevant official agencies. The information and cultural needs of minorities, and the establishment of self-help groups by minorities to meet these needs, are examined.

Library Services to Ethnocultural Minorities. Edited by Leonard Wertheimer. In Library Trends 29, no. 2 (Fall 1980).

A collection of articles on the principles, philosophy, and practice of library service to minorities. Selected papers are listed in the appropriate sections in this bibliography.

Multicultural Librarianship: An International Handbook. IFLA Publications 59. Edited by Marie Zielinska and Francis Kirkwood. München: K.G. Saur, 1992. 383 p.

An international manual intended as a primer for the development and provision of library services to ethnolinguistic minorities, and a point of reference for librarians already offering a multilingual or multicultural service. The handbook is international in scope, and contains chapters written by specialists from many different countries. Includes a comprehensive bibliography.

Multicultural Library Services: Guidelines for Collection Development, Collection Management and Information Services. Prepared by the Working Group on Multicultural Library Services (N.S.W.). Sydney: The Working Group, 1993. 39 p.

Available from: Multicultural Service Consultant, State Library of New South Wales, Sydney.

Multiculturalism and Libraries: Issues and Trends. Edited by Radha Rasmussen and Maria-Teresa Herrera-Keightley. London: Section on Library Services to Multicultural Populations, IFLA, 1989. 111 p. Includes papers written by internationally recognized librarians on multicultural library issues and trends at all levels of government, from international to city/local government. Selected papers are listed in the appropriate sections in this bibliography.

Parker, Stephen. "Multicultural Librarianship: An Outsider's Inside View". In Multiculturalism and Libraries: Issues and Trends. Edited by Radha Rasmussenand Maria-Teresa Herera-Keightley. London: Section on Library Services to Multicultural Populations, IFLA, 1989. P. 6-15.

Discusses standards for multicultural services and how the path chosen by librarians so far keeps multicultural services outside the mainstream of library services.

Rait, S.K. "Public Libraries and Racism". Assistant Librarian 77, no. 3 (October 1984): 123. This brief article identifies fifteen ways in which racism is evident in public libraries, including "by keeping ethnic services in low priorities". This is a useful checklist for staff training programs.

Simsova, Sylva. "Reading and Culture". In Directions for Diversity: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Multiculturalism and Libraries...1985. Melbourne: Working Group of Multicultural Library Services (Victoria), 1986. P. 5-11.

The importance of reading in maintaining one's culture and identity is discussed in light of the immigrant experience.

Stoffle, Carla. "Serving the Unserved: Libraries as Multicultural Organizations Serving a Multicultural Society". The Sourdough 28, no. 2 (Spring 1991): 16-17.

An address to library managers regarding the provision of multicultural library services and the impact it has on staff recruitment, supervision, behaviour, and collections.

Talbot, Christine. "What is a Multicultural Library Service?". Library Association Record 92, no. 7 (July 1990): 501-503+.

Research on adult libraries' services to cultural communities in England identified five areas that should be considered when providing good service to a multicultural society: liaison, policy, staffing, materials, and activities.

Wertheimer, Leonard. "Library Services to Ethnocultural Minorities: Philosophical and Social Bases and Professional Implications". Public Libraries (Fall 1987): 98-102.

An overview of the issues of providing library service to linguistic, ethnic, or cultural minority groups. The special needs of these groups are discussed in relation to library service.

Wertheimer, Ruth Jacobs, and Kathleen M. Foy. "Children of Immigrants and Multiethnic Heritage: Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States". In Library Services to Ethnocultural Minorities. Edited by Leonard Wertheimer. Library Trends 29, no. 2 (Fall 1980): 335-351.

Documents the experience of immigrant children in a new country and their need for heritage-language materials. Examples of public library service to ethnic groups in Canada, the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom are discussed.

3.3 Bibliographies

"Canadian Multicultural Services - A Selective Bibliography". Journal of Multicultural Librarianship 4, no. 3 (July 1990): 99-108.

Haythornthwaite, Jo. "Multicultural Librarianship in Britain: A Bibliographical Overview, 1978-June 1989". Journal of Multicultural Librarianship 3, no. 3 (July 1989): 99-104.

Rasmussen, Radha. "Multicultural Library Services in Australia 1984-1991: A Bibliographic Overview". Journal of Multicultural Librarianship 5, no. 3 (July 1991): 112-122.

Multicultural Librarianship: An International Handbook. IFLA Publications 59. Edited by Marie Zielinska and Francis Kirkwood. München: K.G. Saur, 1992. 383 p.

Includes an extensive bibliography.

4.0 International Efforts

4.1 Canada

Gil, Olga J. "Document Supply in a Multicultural Society: The Alberta, Canada Experience". Interlending and Document Supply 15, no. 2 (April 1987): 43-45.

General overview of multicultural public library service in Alberta. A Handbook for Multilingual Library Service. [Edmonton]: Library Services Branch, Culture and Multiculturalism, 1987. 24 p.

The handbook has been designed for public libraries in Alberta, but it is useful for any library wishing to establish, publicize and promote a multilingual library service. Topics include: needs assessment (what sources of information can be used to ascertain the need); methods of establishing collections in different languages; cataloguing issues for multilingual materials; preparing displays; determining programs; and publicity for and promotion of the multilingual services. Includes sample press releases and a short bibliography.

Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada. Multiculturalism: What Is It Really About? Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1991. 40 p.

Also available in French as Le point sur le multiculturalisme. Multiculturalism in Canada is discussed in a question-answer format. Also includes a description of the federal government's policy on multiculturalism, and facts and figures about Canadian ethnic diversity.

Multiculturalism Matters: Reflections on Multiculturalism and Library Practice. Occasional Paper Number One. Edited by Jaswinder Gundara and Chryss Mylopoulos. Toronto: Ontario Library Association Multicultural Services Guild, 1990. 39 p.

First in a series of occasional papers, this work seeks to "focus attention on key areas of multicultural library services" of use to librarians and library school students working in this area. Three articles, written by authorities in their areas, are included: "Perspectives on Multiculturalism in Canada"; "Multiculturalism in Ontario Libraries - An Overview"; and "Implications of Our Multicultural Community for the Development of Library Services: A Management Process".

Plummer, Alston Jones, Jr. "Canadian Public Library Service to a Multicultural Society: An American Praises Canadian Distinctiveness". Epilogue/Épilogue No. 12 (Fall 1991): 1-18.

An examination of the history of the development of Canadian public library service to immigrants and ethnic groups in four periods, from 1867 to present day.

A Review of Library Services for Multicultural Populations in the OLS-Trent Area: Final Report. Prepared by the Institute of Environmental Research Inc., May 1988. 93 p.

Investigation of current library services for multicultural populations in the Ontario Library System (OLS) - Trent area. Results indicate that the services are marginal and that multilingual and multicultural residents do not perceive the library as an agency helping them with their information needs.

Saskatchewan Provincial Library. Multilingual Services Study Committee. The Report of the Multilingual Committee. Regina: Saskatchewan Provincial Library, 1980. 84 p.

Report outlining multilingual services in Saskatchewan, with an overview of the practices in use at time of the study. Includes census figures for 1976 for areas in Saskatchewan; use of multilingual collections outside Saskatchewan by public libraries; and reviews of the multilingual services available at the Regina Public Library, the Saskatoon Public Library, and the Saskatchewan Provincial Library.

Schulte-Albert, Hans G. "Ethnicity and Librarianship: Canada's Multicultural Policy and Multicultural Public Library Services". Ethnic Forum 8, no. 1 (1988): 7-22.

A history of the formulation of Canada's multicultural policy that traces the development of library service to cultural minority groups before and after this policy was established.

Skreszewski, Stan. "Multiculturalism in Public Libraries: A Case Study of the Province of Ontario, Canada". In Multiculturalism and Libraries: Issues and Trends. Edited by Radha Rasmussen and Maria-Teresa

Herrera-Keightley. London: Section on Library Services to Multicultural Populations, IFLA, 1989. P. 16-28. Describes the history and development of multiculturalism and library services at the national, provincial and local levels. Gives a universal "Continuum for Multicultural Library Services", outlining eight progressive levels of service, from a marginal service (the provision of multilingual books), to complete integration within mainstream services.

Tinsley, Barbara. Multilanguage Services Study: Final Report. Prepared for the Metropolitan Toronto Library Board, January 1988. 80 p.

Extensive examination of multilingual library services provided in Ontario public library systems. Weisz, Iolanda. Study of the Multilingual Services and the Needs of Ethnic Readers in the Greater Vancouver Area. Vancouver: Greater Vancouver Library Federation, May 1982. 93 p.

Study on the multilingual library materials available in Vancouver area libraries, with an effort to determine the needs of multi-ethnic readers and future demands upon the libraries. Study concludes that collections lack overall planning and are unpublicized. Recommendations on a more coordinated approach to provision of services to ethnic communities are provided.

Zielinska, Marie. "Ethnicity and Librarianship: Reaching the Canadian Ethnic Reader: The Work of the Multilingual Biblioservice". Ethnic Forum: Journal of Ethnic Studies and Ethnic Bibliography. 9, nos. 1-2 (1989): 45-51. The service provided to provincial and regional deposit centres by the Multilingual Biblioservice is discussed in detail.

Zielinska, Marie. "Libraries and Ethnic Groups in Canadian Cities". Paper presented to the 8th Biennial Conference of the Canadian Ethnic Studies Association, Montreal, 18 October 1985.

A brief historical overview of the development of library services to immigrants and ethnic groups in Canadian provinces provinces, with special attention given to the role of the Multilingual Biblioservice of the National Library in the provision of ethnic library materials. Some insight into possible future directions of multicultural library services is discussed.

4.2 Other Countries

AUSTRALIA

Rasmussen, Radha, and Ivan Kolarik. "Public Library Services to Ethnocultural Minorities in Australia: A State of the Art Survey". In Library Services to Ethnocultural Minorities. Edited by Leonard Wertheimer. Library Trends 29, no. 2 (Fall 1980): 299-315.

Argues that to implement a multicultural library service, the host society must understand the cultural differences in that society. The services provided in Australian public libraries are briefly examined, and the implications for public libraries of a "multicultural society" are considered.

GERMANY

Schulte-Albert, Hans G. "Public Library Services to Ethnocultural Minorities [in West Germany]". Canadian Library Journal 41, no. 3 (June 1984): 115-120.

The development of multicultural and multilingual services in public libraries in the Federal Republic of Germany. The role of the library in helping to lower linguistic and cultural barriers to newcomers to Germany and to facilitate their acculturation and integration is explored.

JAPAN

Kawamura, Hiroshi. "Multicultural Librarianship in Japan". Journal of Multicultural Librarianship 5, no. 2 (March 1991): 67-76.

THE NETHERLANDS

Voogd, Lourina de. "Library Services for Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands". Journal of Multicultural Librarianship 2, no. 1 (November 1987): 24-30.

This article, based on the text of a paper given in Toronto in 1987, discusses the provision of multicultural library services in the Netherlands. National services, which provide collections of books in various languages to public libraries throughout the country, such as the Dutch Centre for Public Libraries and Literature and the National Library Centre, are described. Facilities provided to immigrants and efforts to promote this service are highlighted.

SCANDINAVIA

Hellman, Birgitta. "Library Services for Refugees and Immigrants". Scandinavian Public Library Quarterly no. 1 (1990): 161+.

A brief overview of the current state of library services to Sweden's immigrant population.

SWEDEN

Gulyas, Miklos. "Public Library Service to Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities in Sweden". Ethnic Forum: Journal of Ethnic Studies and Ethnic Bibliography 10, nos. 1-2 (1990): 34-50.

UNITED KINGDOM

Tinker, Matthew. "The Public Library Service in Multicultural Britain". Library Management 11, no. 4 (1990): 40-50.

Describes the important role the public library can play in a multicultural society, including combating racism and promoting racial harmony. Issues discussed are the provision of ethnic m

inority materials through cooperative agencies, and the recruitment of ethnic librarians into the profession.

UNITED STATES

Adrift in a Sea of Change: California's Public Libraries Struggle to Meet the Information Needs of Multicultural Communities. Berkeley, CA: Center for Policy Development, 1990. 125 p.

Notes from a conference held in California on multicultural library services and meeting the needs of "emerging majorities". Discussion papers and group submissions are included.

Fish, James. "Responding to Cultural Diversity: A Library in Transition". Wilson Library Bulletin (February 1992): 34-37.

Describes the efforts of the San Jose (California) Public Library system to provide services to its Hispanic and Asian communities. Topics include: the initial obstacles faced by the library and the factors that aided the transition to multicultural service; new activities initiated for the culturally diverse population; and the major steps required to provide multicultural services, such as creating mission and value statements, setting goals and objectives, creating staff positions, and establishing committees for promotion, outreach and staff awareness.

Joumas, Renee. "Giving New Americans a Green Light in Life: A Paradigm for Serving Immigrant Communities". Public Libraries (Fall 1987): 103-107.

Describes the New Americans Project initiated by the Queens Borough Public Library in New York City in 1977, with the purpose of assisting immigrants to adjust to their new environment. The library provided foreign language collections, ESL courses, coping skills training, and cultural programming. The article indicates how the public library can perform a vital role in society and improve the lives of many individuals. Many of the examples could be modified for use in other libraries.

Patel, Jashu. "Ethnic Librarianship and Its International Developments in North America". Herald of Library Science 27, no. 3-4 (July-October 1988): 202-210.

Briefly describes some developments and problems associated with providing services to minorities in several American public libraries. The importance of developing library school courses for multicultural librarianship and the recruitment of ethnic minorities into the profession are also discussed.

Payne, Judith. Public Libraries Face California's Ethnic and Racial Diversity. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1988. 97 p.

Known as the "RAND Report", this work focusses on the challenges of serving new ethnic populations in California. The report emphasizes services to children and students under 20 as an effective way to reach the broader community. Libraries must cooperate more closely and be more innovative in sharing language materials.

A State of Change: California's Ethnic Future and Libraries: Conference and Awareness Forum Proceedings, 1988. Edited by Nora Jacob. Sacramento, CA: California State Library Foundation, 1988. 344 p.

A detailed view of the "State of Change" project undertaken in 1987 in California to explore the "changing ethnic character of California and its implications for libraries". Part I includes the executive summary of the RAND Corporation study, Public Libraries Face California's Ethnic and Racial Diversity; Part II summarizes the "State of Change" conference; Part III reports on the "Awareness Forums" held across the state; and Part IV recommends future action relating to multicultural library service.

Tarin, Patricia A. "RAND Misses the Point: A 'Minority' Report". Library Journal (November 1988): 31-34. Article discusses the weaknesses of the much-publicized RAND report, Public Libraries Face California's Ethnic and Racial Diversity (see above).

5.0 Multicultural Services to Groups

Ashby, Jennifer, and Derek Whitehead. Not Enough to Read...The Report of a Survey of the Reading Interests of Six Migrant Communities in Melbourne. Melbourne: Working Group on Multicultural Library Services (Victoria), 1988. 100 p.

Australian study examines profiles of community language use, patterns of library use, sources of books obtained, and reading interests of the participating communities. Improvements to the library service are noted.

Roy, Hélène. "Neo-Canadian Children and Reading". Public Library Quarterly 8, no. 1/2 (1987/88): 75-84.

The article describes a survey of neo-Canadian children concerning their use of a branch library in Montreal. The results conclude that the public library could play an active role in the conservation of their cultural heritages, and that the Multilingual Biblioservice offers some assistance to libraries wishing to provide children's books in heritage languages.

6.0 Promotion, Planning and Outreach

Assessing Your Community for Library Planning. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Culture and Communications, 1987. 39 p.

An introductory guide for library trustees and administrators on undertaking a needs assessment and developing a coherent planning strategy. While general in approach, many of the techniques could be transferred to a needs assessment for multicultural library services. Other publications on needs assessment are also available from the Ministry.

Athan, Sophy. "Marketing Library Services: Panel Discussion". In Multiculturalism and Libraries: Proceedings of the National Conference...1980. Melbourne: Conference Committee, 1981. P. 179-192.

To implement an effective multicultural library service, the library must sell itself to the ethnic community, a process which needs planning and an examination of goals and objectives and the perceived role of the library with regard to these communities. This article outlines five areas that libraries must consider in providing this service: know the market; provide materials; develop programs; train staff; and publicize the service.

Cox, Rita and Ann Gagnon. Multicultural Programming. Canadian Association of Children's Librarians, Library Services to Children. No. 7. Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1989. 16 p.

In addition to providing a general review of the issues and concerns of multicultural library services, this booklet focusses on the development of multicultural library programs for children. Sample programs are included for reference. A brief bibliography of books which could be used in programs is included.

Dickens, Judith. "Library Programming and Ethnic Collections". In Ethnic Collections in Libraries. Edited by E.J. Josey and Marva L DeLoach. New York: Neal Schuman, 1983. P. 293-302.

Provides a working definition of ethnic programming. The relationship between collections and programs is discussed, and the importance of publicity is stressed.

Goley, Elaine P. "Developing Library Collections to Serve New Immigrants". SLJ School Library Journal 32, no. 2 (October 1985): 93-97.

Describes the efforts of the Houston Public Library to provide services to its multicultural community. The library's integration of services with other social agencies, acquisition of a multilingual collection of books and tapes, and promotion of its services are discussed. Another article which also describes the outreach services, community programs, Spanish-language collections, and staff development programs of the Houston Public Library is Louis Yarian Zwick's "Library Services for Spanish-Speaking Children in Houston, as a Model for Services to Cultural and Linguistic Minorities in the United States" in Journal of Multicultural Librarianship.

A Guide for Developing Ethnic Library Services. Compiled by Laura Bareno. California Ethnic Services Task Force, 1979. 90 p.

Handbook designed to assist librarians in establishing and developing library services and collections to meet the needs of California's ethnic populations. Chapters cover planning and evaluation, staff selection and training, needs assessments, collection development, resource sharing, and programming concerns.

Liu, Grace. Promoting Library Awareness in Ethnic Communities. San Jose, CA: South Bay Cooperative Library System, 1985. 118 p.

Describes an outreach project of the South Bay Cooperative Library System designed to promote library awareness in ethnic communities. Included are programs, cultural awareness training, etc. used by the libraries, which can be adapted to other public libraries. Appendices include survey and evaluation forms, planning timetables and parts of an employee manual.

Lopez-Rizza di Sardi, Nelda. "More Smorgasbord than Melting Pot". Marketing (September 26, 1988). Written from a marketing perspective, this article describes the various advertising vehicles to reach ethnic groups based upon cultural differences and findings of recent surveys.

Mylopoulos, Chryss. "Trends in Multicultural Programming". Canadian Library Journal (February 1985): 23-25. The basic principles and philosophy of providing multicultural programs in a library setting are described, and suggestions on how to integrate these programs into mainstream library activities are provided.

Shah, Aruna. "The Positive and the Negative of Multi-ethnic Provision". Library Association Record 86, no. 5 (May 1984): 215-217.

The author provides practical advice for libraries on promoting multicultural services, including how to make contact with ethnic communities, developing a community profile, and themes to consider in staff training courses. Van Duyne, Margaret King. "Embracing Diversity: One With One's Bold New Partnerships". Wilson Library Bulletin (February 1992): 42-44+.

A unique partnership idea between libraries, community-based organizations (CBOs) and newcomers is described. The CBO described is One With One, a program that matches volunteers with new immigrants to introduce immigrants to their new country and its culture in a way that better enables them to interact with their new environment. Since reading can play a major role in this interaction, public libraries are perfect partners. The article describes the relationship and its success.

Whittle, Adrian. "Services to the Asian Community: A Branch Library Perspective". Community Librarian No. 1 (May 1988): 2-3.

The outreach methods used by a small branch library to connect with the Asian community are described.

7.0 Professional and Staff Training

Bowen, Judith. "Working in a Multicultural Society: Education and Training for Librarians and Information Scientists". IFLA Journal 12, no. 3 (1986): 192-202.

Describes the need for professional training in the area of multicultural library services. Written from a British perspective.

Cooke, Madeleine. "Library and Information Services for Our Multicultural Society - The Costs". Public Library Journal 1, no. 2 (May-June 1986): 21-25.

With the Library Association's policy statement on Library and Information Services for Our Multicultural Society (1985) as background (see above), Cooke's article explores the practical implications in terms of staffing, training and professional education in British libraries.

Cooke, Madeleine. "The Recruitment and Training of Library and Information Workers of Ethnic Minority Background". Training & Education 4, no 3 (1987): 45-50.

With the Library Association's policy statement on Library and Information Services for Our Multicultural Society (1985) as background (see above), Cooke's article explores the practical implications in terms of staffing, training and professional education in British libraries.

Cultural Diversity Programming in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit #165. Washington, D.C.: Systems and Procedures Exchange Center, Office of Management Studies, Association of Research Libraries, June 1990. 189 p.

Nine libraries, including the National Library of Canada, provide examples of cultural diversity programs and training for cultural differences in the workplace.

Greenfield, Louise. "Educating the World: Training Library Staff to Communicate Effectively with International Students". The Journal of Academic Librarianship 12, no. 4 (1986): 227-31.

The University of Arizona Library developed a staff workshop designed to prepare library staff for cross-cultural communication. This article describes the goals, content and organization of the workshop, and addresses concerns with regard to international students, such as language difficulties and cultural adjustments. Although developed for an academic library, the tenets of the workshop can be easily transferred to public libraries. Latino Librarianship: A Handbook for Professionals. Edited by Salvador Güereña. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1990. 192 p.

Handbook for librarians who serve Latino or Spanish-speaking groups from Latin America. Needs assessment, reference service, collection development concerns for different populations, and the English-only movement, are covered extensively. A useful outreach manual is included in Appendix C.

Lockett, Mary. "Preparing Librarians to Serve Ethnic Communities". In "The Visible College". Journal of Education for Library and Information Science 29, no. 2 (Fall 1988): 141-142.

Describes the merits and course outline of a course, "Library and Information Services to Ethnic Communities", at the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Lorentowicz, Genia. "Planning a Workshop on Multicultural Service". Canadian Library Journal (June 1984): 125-126.

A workshop designed to increase the librarian's knowledge of and interest in ethnolinguistic communities and public library services to multicultural communities is described.

Minority Recruitment and Retention in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit #16. Washington, D.C.: Systems and Procedures Exchange Center, Office of Management Studies, Association of Research Libraries, September 1990. 125 p. Includes documents from libraries actively involved in minority recruitment, including procedures, contact lists, strategies, and internships.

Schulte-Albert, Hans G. "Learning to Cope with Non-English Languages in a Canadian Library Context". Journal of Multicultural Librarianship 1, no. 2 (November 1986): 56-61.

Description of a library course on multicultural librarianship given at the University of Western Ontario School of Library and Information Science.

Simsova, Sylva. "Library Training for Services to Minority Ethnic Groups: Concepts and General Principles". In Library Service to Ethnocultural Minorities. Edited by Leonard Wertheimer. Library Trends 29, no. 2 (Fall 1980): 245-258.

General overview of the courses on multicultural librarianship available in library schools. A course outline and teaching methodology is provided as an example.

Description of a systematic evaluation procedure using output and input measures and community analysis. While Australian in context, the method can be used by any public library. Another article by the same author can be found in Multiculturalism and Libraries: Issues and Trends (1989): 93-106.

8.0 Collection Development

Boxall, Rhonda. "Book Selection for Community Languages Collections". Breakthrough no. 20 (May 1988): 4-8.

Discussion of the major points to consider in developing a book selection policy for a language collection. Topics include formulation of language profiles (materials of interest, demand, etc.), sources of supply, methods of acquisition, and general problems encountered.

Developing Library Collections for California's Emerging Majority: A Manual of Resources for Ethnic Collection Development. Edited by Katharine T. Scarborough. Berkeley, CA: Bay Area Library and Information System (BALIS), 1990. 296 p.

A manual produced through the joint work and effort of academic and public librarians with guidelines for developing relevant collections for multicultural communities. Focusses on four major ethnic groups in the U.S: African American, American Indian, Asian/Southeast Asian, and Chicano/Latino.

Ethnic Collections in Libraries. Edited by E.J. Josey and Marva L. DeLoach. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1983. 361 p.

Collection of essays discussing the challenges of building ethnic collections for libraries and major collections for ethnic minorities in the United States. Selected chapters are listed below.

Holmes, Anne and Derek Whitehead. Buying Books in Other Languages: A Handbook for Australian School and Public Libraries. Canberra: National Library of Australia, 1983. 192 p.

Lists information about the publishing industry and variations of dialect in many languages, and concludes with a list of available sources in Australia. While not directly useful for Canada, the information about languages is helpful. Sources of literature in Canada can be obtained from the National Library of Canada Multilingual Biblioservice publications.

Lorentowicz, Genia. Cooperative Networking for Multicultural Services in Metropolitan Toronto. Toronto: Metropolitan Toronto Library Board, June 1985.

The organization of the cooperative network for providing services to multicultural communities is described, including the initiatives that led to the formation of the cooperative, the mechanics of the network, and the means of resolving the problems of providing multicultural library services among the different library systems.

Multicultural Acquisitions. Edited by Karen Parrish and Bill Katz. New York: Haworth Press, 1993.

National Library of Canada. Multilingual Biblioservice. Catalogue of Books-on-Cassette in Heritage Languages. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1991.
Also available on MINISIS database at the Multilingual Biblioservice.

National Library of Canada. Multilingual Biblioservice. Catalogue of Large-Print Books in Heritage Languages. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1989, and Supplement, 1991.
Also available on MINISIS database at the Multilingual Biblioservice.

National Library of Canada. Multilingual Biblioservice. Books-on-Cassette in Languages Other Than English. Compiled by Irena Bell. 4th ed. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, May 1992.

Randall, Ann Knight. "Problem Areas in the Development of Ethnic Collections". In Ethnic Collections in Libraries. Edited by E.J. Josey and Marva L. DeLoach. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1983. P. 12-23.

Article identifies problems in developing ethnic collections. Careful group definition and study of the history and bibliography are important approaches to successful collection development. An example of a written collection development policy that can be used as a tool for planning and coordinating collection development in other libraries is provided.

Wray, Wendell. "Criteria for the Evaluation of Ethnic Materials". In Ethnic Collections in Libraries. Edited by E.J. Josey and Marva L. DeLoach. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1983. P. 24-35.

The author notes that while there are no ironclad rules for selecting materials about ethnic groups, there are some useful guidelines.

Zielinska, Marie. "Acquisition of Multilingual Materials: Through a Central Resource Agency or by Individual Libraries?". Library Acquisitions: Practice & Theory 10 (1986): 255-260.

Different methods of organizing the acquisition of multilingual library materials are examined on the local, national and international scale. The pros and cons of three methods, including decentralized acquisitions, centralized acquisitions to rotating deposit collections, and centralized cooperative acquisitions, are discussed. External factors, such as demographics and social concerns, are mentioned. An understanding of reader needs is stressed.

Zielinska, Marie and Irena Bell. "Selection and Acquisition of Library Materials in Languages Other than English: Some Guidelines for Public Libraries". In Collection Building Reader. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1992.

8.1 Children

Beilke, Patricia F. Selecting Materials for and about Hispanic and East Asian Children and Young People. Hamden, CT: Library Profession Publications/Shoestring Press, 1986. 178 p.

Guide to the selection of print materials for young Hispanic and East Asian readers. Information about the evaluation of materials related to minority and immigrant groups is included.

The Black American in Books for Children: Readings in Racism. Edited by Donnarae MacCann. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1985. 298 p.

Includes essays relating to the depiction of the black experience in literature for children. Kruse, Ginny Moore. "No Single Season: Multicultural Literature for All Children". Wilson Library Bulletin (February 1992): 30-33+.

Examples of literature that can be used in developing programs and collections.

8.2 Directories

Contact People for Multilingual Materials in Ontario Public Libraries. [Toronto]: Libraries and Community Information Branch, Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, [1985?]. 25 p.

Lists names of contact people responsible for multilingual material collections in Ontario public libraries. Arranged by library.

Directory of Language Collections in North American Public Libraries. Compiled by Sylva N. Manoogian and Natalia B. Bezugloff. Chicago: American Library Association, 1986. 113 p.

Directory of collections by language. Includes Canadian collections.

Heller, Laura. Multicultural Information Resources: A Guide to Metropolitan Toronto. Toronto: Cross Cultural Communication Centre, 1987.

Guide to libraries, resource centres and community agencies in Metro Toronto that house or produce information on multicultural topics and issues.

Multilingual Book Collections in Ontario Public Libraries. Ontario: Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, [1985]. 31 p.

Directory of the locations of significant collections of multilingual books by library, language, and area in the province of Ontario. The sources of the holdings, such as those from the Multilingual Biblioservice of the National Library, the Ontario Library Service, the Metro Toronto Cooperative Service, or those purchased by member libraries, are listed.

Multilingual Newspapers and Periodicals in Ontario Public Libraries. [Toronto]: Libraries and Community Information Branch, Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, [1986]. 124 p.

Directory of the locations of multilingual newspapers and periodicals by library, language, and area in Ontario.

9.0 Automation and Cataloguing

Automated Systems for Access to Multilingual and Multiscript Library Materials - Problems and Solutions: Papers from the Pre-Conference held at Nihon Daigaku Kaikan, Tokyo, Japan, August 21- 22, 1986. IFLA Publications 38. Edited for the Section on Library Services to Multicultural Populations and the Section on Information Technology by Christine Bossmeyer. München: E.G. Saur, 1987.

Also referred to as IFLA 1986. Papers presented by experts in library automation from around the world which review the state of the art in developing multilingual or multiscript bibliographic databases.

Ballance, Virginia. "Cataloguing in the Official and Heritage Languages at the National Library of Canada". Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 17, nos. 2/3 (1993): 219-232. Also in Languages of the World: Cataloging Issues and Problems. Edited by Martin D. Joachim. New York: Haworth Press, 1993. P. 219-232.

Ballance, Virginia. "Opening Windows on MINISIS: A New Solution to the Old Problem of Automating Non-Roman Scripts". Paper given at the 12th International MINISIS Users' Group Meeting, Port of Spain, Trinidad, April 29-May 3, 1991.

Cataloguing and Classification of Non-Western Material: Concerns, Issues and Practices. Edited by Mohammed M. Aman. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx, 1980. 368 p.

Chen, William Y. Observations on Cataloguing and Classification. 3rd ed., rev. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan, 1991. 222 p.

Explores the special problems of cataloguing and classifying Chinese works.

"Dial-in Access to the MBS-MINISIS Database". National Library News 22, no. 12 (December 1990): 11-12.

Information and instructions about the MINISIS database dial-in access available through the Multilingual Biblioservice.

Kirkwood, Francis T. "Library Computing in Canada: How is it Different?" In Library Computing in Canada: Bilingualism, Multiculturalism, and Transborder Connections. Edited by Nancy Melin Nelson and Eric Flower. Westport, CT: Meckler, 1991.

An interesting article describing library automation for different languages currently available in Canada. Kirkwood, Francis T. "Progress in Automation of Multilingual Library Services around the World: Notes from a Preliminary Survey". Journal of Multicultural Librarianship 5, no. 1 (November 1990): 17-25.

Merkis, Witold. "Multilingual DBMS Access". Interact 8, no. 10 (October 1988): 97-100.

Description of the MINISIS database of the Multilingual Biblioservice of the National Library of Canada, with its application of Roman and non-Roman languages to computerized cataloguing.

Simsova, Sylva. "Coping with Foreign and Non-Standard Characters in Libraries". SESAME Bulletin 3, Part 1 (Spring 1990): 4-11.

Stone, M.B. "Information Systems and Services to Support the World Community". Canadian Library Journal 42, no. 4 (August 1985): 203-207.

Wellisch, Hans H. "Bibliographic Access to Multilingual Collections". In Library Services to Ethnocultural Minorities. Edited by Leonard Wertheimer. Library Trends 29, no. 2 (Fall 1980): 223-244.

Identification of the problems of providing bibliographic access to multilingual book collections. While dated, the summarization of the problems is helpful.

10.0 Audiovisual Materials and English as a Second Language

Arora, Ved, Irena Bell and Marilyn Jenkins. "International Market for Spoken Books". Multicultural Review 3, no. 2 (June 1994): 32-39.

Singh, Ranjana. "English as a Second Language: The Challenge for Libraries". Library Association Record  90, no. 1 (November 1988): 657-659.

Zielinska, Marie and Jaswinder Gundara. "The Challenge of Audiovisual Library Services to Canada's Culturally Diverse Society". Paper submitted to IFLA, June 1989.

Part One, by Marie Zielinska, discusses national audiovisual services, while Part Two, by Jaswinder Gundara, discusses the situation in Toronto. The interlibrary loan collection of talking books available through the Multilingual Biblioservice and the extensive ESL resources available at the Metropolitan Reference Library are highlighted.