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ᒐᐛᐎᒋᔨᑯᐎᓐ ᐊᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ

ᒐᒂᓐ ᐊᓐ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ?

ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ ᑲᐱᑕᐱᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐊᓐᑕ ᑲᒥᓯᓇᐃᒐᐱᒡ ᐛᒋᐃᑯᒡ ᐊᐛᓐᒋ ᐃᔭᐱᒋᑕᒡ, ᓂᔅᑐᐃᒡ ᐃᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐊᐃᑎᔅᑕᒡ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ᙮ ᐊᑲᑭᔭᓴᐅᔅᑕᒋ, ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᒋ ᑭᔭ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒋ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ᙮ ᐃᔪᔅᑕᐛ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ, ᐊᓯᒡ ᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᐛ ᒐᒥᔪᐎᑯᒡ ᐊᓐᒡ ᐊᑲ ᓂᔅᑐᐛᐸᑕᒡ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᐃᒡ, ᓂᔅᑐᐃᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᒋᑭ ᒋ  ᐃᑎᔅᑕᓐ ᒐᒃ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐛᓇᓂᑐᔅᒐᔨᑎᒥᓐ ᐊᓯᓂᔅᑐᑕᒂᒡ, ᐊᑯ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ, ᒋᑭ ᒋ  ᐃᔪᔅᑕᓐ ᑭᔭ ᒪᒃ ᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᒋᑭ ᒋ  ᐃᑎᔅᑕᓐ᙮

ᐊᒋᑕᐸᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᑭᔭ ᐊᒥᓯᓇᔨᒐᐱᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒡ᙮

ᓂᑐᐛᐃᑕᑯᓐ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒡ ᐸᐃᒂᐤ ᐊᑎᐸᓂᔅᑕᒡ ᒐᒋ ᒋᑕᐸᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒡ ᐅᑕ ᑲᒥᓯᓇᐃᒐᐱᐃᒡ, ᐊᓐ ᐛᒋᑭᔅᒋᔪᐱᐃᒡ ᒐᒋ ᐃᔪᔅᑕᐱᐃᒡ ᐊᐅᑯᓐ ᓇᑐᐛᐃᑕᒂᒡ ᐛᐃ ᐃᔪᔅᑕᑭᓄᒡ᙮ ᐅᑲᒥᓯᓇᐃᒐᐱᒥᒡ ᐊᐛᓐ ᒋᑭ ᒋ  ᐃᔅ ᐱᑕᐱᑕᐤ ᑕᐱᔅᑯᓐ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᐃᒡ ᑭᔭ ᐊᓐ ᐛᒋᑭᔅᒋᔪᐱᐃᒡ ᒐᒋ ᐃᔪᔅᑕᐱᐃᒡ ᐊᑲ ᒋᓯᐧᑲᓱᑦ᙮ ᐎᓇᓂᑐᔅᒐᐃᑎᒪᒂ, ᒋᔅᒋᓇ "ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒡ ᐊᒥᓯᓇᐃᒐᐱᑕᑭᓄᒡ᙮"

ᑕᓐ ᐊᓯᐱᒻᐱᐃᒡ ᐊᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᒐᒂᓐ?

ᓂᓱᐃᒡ ᒋᑭ ᒋ  ᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᓐ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ:

ᐸᐃᒄ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᒡ᙮

ᐸᐃᒄ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᑎᑯᓐ ᐊᓐᑕ ᒥᓯᐛ ᒂᔅᑕᒋᓂᑭᓂᒡ ᐅᑕ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ ᑲᒥᓯᓇᐃᒐᐱᐃᒡ᙮ ᐱᑕᐱᑕ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ(ᓇ) ᐛᓇᓂᑐᔅᒐᐃᑎᒥᓐ ᐊᓯᓂᔅᑐᑕᒂᒡ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐊᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐅᐱᒪ ᑎᑯᓐ "ᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ" ᑭᔭ ᒐᒋᔅᒋᓂᒥᓐ "ᑐᑕ"᙮

ᐸᐃᒄ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᒥᓯᐛ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐊᑎᐃᑎᑯᓂᔨᒋ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ ᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑎᒻ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᔪᐤ ᐊᓐᑕ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ ᑲᐱᑕᐱᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐊᓐᑕ ᑲᒥᓯᓇᐃᒐᐱᐃᒡ᙮ ᐅᔅᑕ ᐸᐃᒄ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐱᑕᐱᑕᔨᓇ, ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ ᑲᐱᑕᐱᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐊᓐᑕ ᑲᒥᓯᓇᐃᒐᐱᐃᒡ ᓴᒐᔾ ᒋᑭ  ᓄᑯᓐ ᐅ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ "and" ᐊᓐᑕ ᑕᑕᐅᒡ ᒥᓯᐛ ᒋᑦ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ᙮

ᐊᓐᑕ ᐊᑲᑭᔭᓴᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᒂᔅᑕᒋᓂᑭᓂᒡ, ᒋᑭ ᒋ  ᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᑲᑭᔭᓴᐅᔅᑕᒡ, ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᑭᔭ ᒪᒃ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒡ ᑭᔭ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒋ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ ᒋᑭ ᒋ  ᐱᑕᐱᑕᑭᓄᐛ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒋ ᑭᔭ ᒪᒃ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᒋ᙮ ᑎᑯᓇ ᒥᔅᑯᒡ ᐸᔅᒐ ᐊᑲ ᒋᒋᑐᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᒐᒂᓐ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᑭᔭ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒡ ᒂᔅᑕᒋᓂᑭᓂᒡ᙮ ᐛᔅ ᐱᐃᑯᑕᐤ ᐊᓂᔭ ᐸᐃᒂᐤ ᐊᑎᐸᓂᔅᑕᒋ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᒋ ᒧᔭᒻ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒋ ᐃᑎᔅᑕᐛ᙮ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒡ ᒂᔅᑕᒋᓂᑭᓂᒡ, ᓇᒪ ᒋᑭᒋᒋ ᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᐤ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᒋ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ, ᑭᔭ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᒂᔅᑕᒋᓂᑭᓂᒡ, ᓇᒪ ᒋᑭᒋᒋ ᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᐤ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒋ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ᙮

ᐊᐛᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ᙮

ᒐᒋ ᐛᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ, ᒐᒋᔅᒋᓂᒥᓐ “ᐛᐛᐸᑕ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ” ᐊᓐᑕ ᑕᐧᑯᒡ ᑎᑯᓐ ᑲᒥᓯᓇᔨᒐᐱᐃᒡ᙮

ᓂᓱᐃᒡ ᒋᑭ ᒋ  ᐛᐛᐸᑕᓐ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ: ᒋᑭ ᒋ  ᐛᐛᐸᑕᓐ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓐ ᐊᒋᔅᒋᓂᒥᓐ ᐸᐃᒄ ᐊᒐᑭᔅᑕᒡ, ᑭᔭ ᒪᒃ ᒐᑭᒋ ᐱᑕᐱᑕᓐ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒐᒋ ᐛᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ ᐊᓐ ᐛᒋᑕᐸᑎᒥᓐ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ᙮ ᐊᒋᔅᒋᓂᒥᓐ ᐸᐃᒄ ᐊᒐᑭᔅᑕᒡ ᑭᔭ ᒪᒃ ᐊᐱᑕᐱᑕᔨᓐ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒋᑭ  ᐎᔪᐎᐱᔨᐛ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ᙮ ᒋᔅᒋᓇ ᐊᐱᑕᐱᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒐᒋ ᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ ᐊᓄᒂᒋ ᒥᓯᐛ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ᙮

ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓂᔅ: ᒥᒄ ᐊᓐ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᑎᒂᒡ ᐊᓐᑕ ᑲᒥᓯᓇᐃᒐᐱᐃᒡ ᐊᐅᑯᓐ ᒥᒄ ᒐᒋ ᐛᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ᙮ ᒧᔭᒻ ᐃᔅᒋᔄᑕᐤ, ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒡ ᐊᐱᒋᑕᔨᓇ ᐊᓐᑕ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓇ ᐊᐱᑕᐱᑕᑭᓄᒋ ᐊᓐᑕ ᑲᒥᓯᓇᐃᒐᐱᐃᒡ, ᐊᐅᑯᓐ ᒥᒄ ᒐᒋ ᐛᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐸᐃᒂᐤ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒋ ᐊᑎᐸᓂᔅᑕᒋ ᑭᔭ ᒪᒃ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ᙮

ᐊᓯᐎᐎᐱᔨᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ᙮

ᐊᓯᐎᐎᐱᔨᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᓇᐅᒂᒡ ᒋᐛᐸᑎᔨᑯᓐ ᒥᒐᑦ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ ᐊᓂᔭ ᓂᔭᓂᑐᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ(ᓇ)᙮ ᑕᑎᐸᓐ ᐎᔪᐎᐱᔨᐛ ᐊᓂᔭ ᐊᓯᐎᐎᐱᔨᒋ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ᙮ ᒋᔅᒋᓇ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᒐᒋ ᒥᓯᐛ ᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ ᐊᐃᓯ ᐊᐱᑎᒡ ᐊᓐ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ᙮

ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᓄᒂᒡ᙮

ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᓄᒂᒡ ᒋᐛᐸᑎᔨᑯᓐ ᒥᒐᑦ ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ ᐊᓐ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᑲᐱᑕᐱᑕᔨᓐ᙮ ᐊᑎᒪᐱᓯᒧᒡ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᒡ ᒋᑭ  ᐃᔅ ᓄᑯᓐ ᐊᓐ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ, ᐊᓯᒡ ᐅ ᒪᓯᓇᑕᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ᙮

ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ ᐊᓯᓂᐧᑲᑕᒋ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐊᓯᓂᔅᑐᑕᒂᒡ
ᐛᐱᓄᑕᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᐅᑯ ᐊᓯᐎᔅᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐛᐱᓄᑕᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ᙮ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓂᔅ: ᓇᒪ ᒥᓯᐛ ᑎᑯᓇ ᐛᐱᓄᑕᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐃᑎᔅᑕᐛ᙮
ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᒋ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᓯᐎᔅᑕᑭᓄᒡ᙮ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓂᔅ: ᓇᒪ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᑭᓄᐤ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐊᐃᔨᔅᑕᒡ ᒥᒄ ᓂᔭᓂᑯᑎᓂ, ᒥᒄ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓯᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᒋᔅᑎᓇᑭᓄᐤ ᒐᒋ ᐊᐱᑎᒡ ᒐᒋ ᐊᐱᒋᑕᒡ ᐊᓐᒡ ᐊᑲ ᓂᔅᑐᐛᐸᑕᒡ ᐊᐃᔪᔅᑕᐃᒡ᙮
ᑲᑭᔭᓴᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐊᓯᓂᔅᑐᑕᒂᒡ ᑲᑭᔭᓴᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐃᓯᓂᔅᑐᑕᒂᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ
ᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓱᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐊᓯᓂᔅᑐᑕᒂᒡ ᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓱᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ ᐃᓯᓂᔅᑐᑕᒂᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ
ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐊᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒥᓇᓄᒡ᙮ ᐊᑕᒂᐸᒋᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ ᐊᐱᒋᑕᑭᓄᐤ ᒐᒋᔅᒐᔨᑕᒂᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ᙮ ᐎᓇᓂᑐᔅᒐᔨᑎᒥᓇ ᐊᑕᒂᐸᒋᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ, ᐊᓐᑕ ᒐᒋᑕᐸᑎᒥᓐ ᐊᑕᒂᐸᒋᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ
ᑕᑐᐎᒡ ᐊᓯᑎᒂᒡ ᑕᑐᐎᒡ ᐊᓯᑎᒂᒡ ᐊᓐᑕ ᒥᔭᒧᔅᑕᒋ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ ᒧᔭᒻ ᐃᔅᒋᔄᑕᐤ, ᐊᓐ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ "ᒪᓂᔅᒐᓂᔅ" ᒪᓐᑕ ᒐᒥᔅᑭᒥᓐ ᐊᓐᑕ "ᐊᐛᓯᓴᒡ" ᒥᔭᒧᔅᑕᒋ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ ᒥᓯᓇᐃᑭᓂᔅ: ᓇᒪ ᒥᓯᐛ ᒪᒧᔅᑕᐛ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ ᐊᓐ ᓂᔭᓂᑐᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ᙮
ᐊᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ(ᓇ) ᐊᑲᑭᔭᓴᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᐊᑲᑭᔭᓴᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ(ᓇ) ᐊᔅᒋᐱᔨᐛ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐸᐃᒄ ᑭᔭ ᒪᒃ ᒥᒐᑦ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ᙮ ᒧᔭᒻ ᐃᔅᒋᔄᑕᐤ, ᐊᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ ᐊᑲᑭᔭᓴᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ "School" ᒥᓯᐛ ᒋᑭ  ᓄᑯᓇ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ "School" ᐊᔅᒋᐱᔨᒡ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ᙮
ᐊᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑕᑭᓄᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ(ᓇ) ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓱᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓱᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ(ᓇ) ᐊᔅᒋᐱᔨᐛ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐸᐃᒄ ᑭᔭ ᒪᒃ ᒥᒐᑦ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ᙮ ᒧᔭᒻ ᐃᔅᒋᔄᑕᐤ, ᐊᓇᓂᑐᐛᐸᑎᒥᓐ ᐊᐛᒥᔅᑎᑯᓱᐅᔅᑕᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ "Gratter" ᒥᓯᐛ ᒋᑭ  ᓄᑯᓇ ᓇᔅᑲᐱ ᐃᔪ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓇ "Gratter" ᐊᔅᒋᐱᔨᒡ ᐊᓐᑕ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓂᒡ᙮

ᐊᑕᒂᐸᑲᒡ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ

dem
demonstrative
na
noun, animate
nda
noun, dependent, animate
ndi
noun, dependent, inanimate
ni
noun, inanimate
nma
nominalization, animate
nmi
nominalization, inanimate
p
particle
pro
personal pronoun
vai
verb, animate, intransitive
vai/ii
verb, animate or inanimate, intransitive
vii
verb, inanimate, intransitive
vta
verb, transitive, animate
vti
verb, transitive, inanimate

Immediately following the grammatical designation listed above, another abbreviation may be found. This abbreviation indicates the final sound of the word stem. Sometimes, the addition of certain suffixes will change this final sound. Therefore, in certain cases the underlying sound is indicated as follows:

na-w
'w' final sound
p-w
'w' final sound
vai-i
'i' final sound
vai-u
'u' final sound
vai-uu
'uu' final sound
vii-i
'i' final sound
vii-u
'u' final sound
vii-uu
'uu' final sound

Following the underlying final sound (if any) in the grammatical designation, certain other abbreviations may be found concerning the construction of the Naskapi entry. These are all separated by commas, as follows:

,Cj
Conjunct
,d
diminutive
,loc
locative
,imp
impersonal (generalized activity)
,pj
pejorative
,pl
plural
,ps
passive
,r
reduplication

These are found in the Lexicon as follows:

pipikitisuw
vii-i,d,r
'it is a very thin frozen layer of ice'

The grammatical designation for this word is: verb, inanimate, intransitive; stem final sound "i" diminutive; reduplication.

Other abbreviations are found in the definition or keyword, including the following:

(anim)
animate
(inan)
inanimate
(ex)
for example
(lit)
literally
(obv)
obviative
(N)
noun (to distinguish from the verb, ex SAW (N); the tool)
(V)
verb (to distinguish from the noun, ex SNOW (V); snowing)