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Deportation from Canada, 1893-1977

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Source

This guide consists of general and specific references to government sources and a selected bibliography on deportation from Canada in the period 1893-1977.

This guide was created in October 1987 and was revised in September 2000.

There was no central register of deportees until the advent of departmental electronic data processing (EDP) systems in the 1960s, and few deportation case files have survived to present. However, extensive lists of deportees can be found in various Record Groups in files dating from 1893 to 1946. Records on "unofficial" deportations before 1893 are scattered throughout the immigration records of the Department of Agriculture (RG 17, series A).

Deportation or Rejection. Persons rejected at the border and not allowed into Canada (as opposed to the much smaller number of persons who enter Canada and are thereafter deported) are not necessarily documented in records on "deportations." Notations indicating persons rejected are present in the Records of Entry (RG 76 series V), both in the ships' manifests (1865-1935) and in the border entry lists (1908-1935). Distinct lists of rejected persons are often found in the latter. There are also some subject files on rejection policy scattered throughout RG 76, series I (Central Registry files).

Deportation of Specific Groups. References to deportations are also found scattered throughout the subject files in RG 76, for example in files on "undesirables," "irregular entry," "agitators" and "Communists." See the RG 76 finding aids for specific references.

1. Archival References

Government Records

Records of the Immigration Branch (RG 76)

The Immigration Branch kept a collection of records from many different government departments relating to issues of immigration, including deportation.

Report on deportation of Germans from South Africa, 1947-1950
(RG 76, vol. 660, file B67104, reel C-10596)
Various, House of Commons, Returns to Questions, 1957-1970
(RG 76, vols. 689 and 690, reels C-10687 and C-10688)
Various files on questions raised in the House regarding specific cases.
Deportation of undesirables from Canada; policy and instructions, 1948-1966
(RG 76, vol. 750, file 514-15, pts. 1-6)
Numerous files on deportation policy and procedures, specific subtopics and countries, 1940s-1966
(RG 76, vols. 750-754, files 514-14 to 514-40)
Immigration Manuals, First Series, Chapter 12: "Deportation and Departure from Canada," 1952-1970
(RG 76, vol. 936, binder 14, pt. 1)
Immigration Manuals, Second Series, Chapter 12: "Deportation," 1971-1977
(RG 76, vol. 943, binder 45)
Binders Immigration Instructions (circulars, directives and operations memoranda), 1950-1973
(RG 76, vols. 939-942, file 23-34)
Includes items on deportation procedures, scattered throughout.
Deportation; general file, 1972-1974
(RG 76, vol. 974, file 5230-1, pt. 5)
Deportation, 1956-1975
(RG 76, vols. 974 and 975, files 5230-1-612, 5235-8-4 and 5235-8-7)
Files relating to specific countries (Poland, Yugoslavia), to deportation appeal policy and procedures, and involvement of the Immigration Appeal Board in deportations.
Paupers (insane, criminal or otherwise) to be returned, 1893-1996
(RG 76, file 837, pt. 1, reel C-4697)
Deportation of undesirable immigrants, 1903-1904
(RG 76, file 837, pt. 5, reel C-4697)
Deportation of undesirable immigrants, 1905-1906
(RG 76, file 837, pt. 9, reel C-4697)
Immigration of criminal classes, 1893-1923
(RG 76, file 2174, reel C-4714)
Rejections and Exclusions from United Kingdom (lists and reports), 1906-1910
(RG 76, file 3116, pt. 1, reel C-4737)
Rejections and Exclusions from United Kingdom, 1910-1914
Rejections and Deportation to British Isles from Canada, 1909-1917
(RG 76, file 3116, pt. 2, reel C-4737)
Undesirable immigrants, 1892-1915
(RG 76, file 15197, pts.1-3, reel C-4765)
Index Visible (immigration rejection and detention cards), 1925-1939
(RG 76, file 203452, reel C-7808)
First cases of detention and rejections at the Atlantic ports (regulation of December 1902), 1903-1907
(RG 76, file 228124, pts. 3-7, reel C-7818)
Jack (John) Charles Bell, Edward Patrick Ryan Kelly and Brian Lawlord, Newfoundland, 1947
(RG 76, file 261410A to C, reel C-7837)
Deportation of undesirables from Canada, 1923-1926
(RG 76, file 267831, pt. 1, reel C-7841-2)
Individual cases.
Deportation of undesirables from Canada, 1926-1927
(RG 76, file 267831, pts. 2-5, reel C-7842)
Individual cases.
Deportation of undesirables from Canada, 1927-1928
(RG 76, file 267831, pt. 6, reel C-7842-3)
Individual cases.
Deportation of undesirables from Canada, 1928
(RG 76, file 267831, pt. 7, reel C-7843)
Individual cases.
Deportation of undesirables from Canada, 1928
(RG 76, file 267831, pt. 8, reel C-7843)
Individual cases.
Deportation of insane person, 1925-1930
(RG 76, file 268449, pts. 1-6, reel C-7843)
Individual cases.
Port agents reports of detentions and deportation, 1905-1906, 1909 and 1911
(RG 76, file 391230, reel C-10259)

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Munetaka Samejima, Japanese (report), 1931-1932 and 1949
(RG 76, file 491970, reel C-10268)
Dan Chomicki, Polish (alias Holmes, Homes or Homitski), Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1931-1935, 1939-1940, 1947 and 1958
(RG 76, file 513111, reel C-10274)
Communist pamphlet.
Avro Vaaro, Finnish (pamphlet), 1928 and 1930-1932
(RG 76, file 513116, reel C-10274)
Clinical examination of immigrants to be deported, 1906-1914
(RG 76, file 518766, reel C-10274)
Ludgar Simoneau, insane immigrant to return by the U.S. government, 1906-1907
(RG 76, file 520318, reel C-10275)
A.S. Munro, Vancouver, British Columbia
Désiré Brothier detained on the S.S. Ramona, taken ashore under warrant, 1906
(RG 76, file 527714, reel C-10276)
Adele Peltier, insane immigrant to return by the U.S. government, 1906-1907 and 1911
(RG 76, file 529326, reel C-10276)
E.H. Bullock, Worchester, England, 1906-1907 (RG 76, file 531995, reel C-10277)
E.J. Wallace, Acting U.S.Comissioner, Montreal, Quebec
Delphine Gélinas, to be returned to Canada from U.S. as insane, 1906-1907
(RG 76, file 542977, reel C-10285)
Canada-U.S. arrangement for transportation of deports to last place of residence, 1932-1939
(RG 76, file 563204, reel C-10286)
Insane immigrants in U.S. and Canadian asylums, 1906-1914
(RG 76, file 563236, pts. 1-4, reel C-10286)
Deportation lists.
Deportation of undesirables from Canada (lists), 1915-1918
(RG 76, file 563236, pt. 6, reel C-10286-7)
Deportation of undesirables from Canada, 1918-1929
(RG 76, file 563236, pts. 7-13, reel C-10287)
Deportation of undesirables from Canada, 1929-1931
(RG 76, file 563236, pt. 14, reel C-10287-8)
Deportation of undesirables from Canada, 1931-1948
(RG 76, file 563236, pts. 15-19, reel C-10288)
Samples of forms used for deportation cases. The previous history of deported immigrants, 1907-1914 and 1917-1925
(RG 76, file 563236A, pt. 1, reel C-10288)
Samples of forms used for deportation cases, 1925-1938
(RG 76, file 563236, pt. 2, reel C-10288-9)
Undesirables in the Province of Quebec (lists), 1908-1910, 1919, 1924, 1927-1935, 1937 and 1941
(RG 76, file 563236, reel C-10289)
Philip Spain, insane immigrant to be returned from U.S., 1906-1907, 1919 and 1921
(RG 76, file 563751, reel C-10289)
Alfred Blanchet, Victoriaville, Quebec, appointed an inspector to search for undesirables in asylums, 1906-1920
(RG 76, file 567097, pts. 1-3, reel C-10289)
Alfred Blanchet, Victoriaville, Quebec, appointed an inspector to search for undesirables in asylums, 1906-1933
(RG 76, file 567097, pts. 2 and 3, reel C-10289-90)
A.D. Stewart, Medical Inspector, Montreal. Pass from the Department of Justice authorizing him to visit the gaol regarding undesirables, 1906
(RG 76, file 567570, reel C-10290)
Dominion steamship line, Montreal. Deportation of immigrants as second class passengers, 1906-1912
(RG 76, file 577355, reel C-10292)
Jeannie Caldwell (deported to Scotland for theft), 1906-1907 and 1912
(RG 76, file 590006, reel C-10294)
John P. Thompson, undesirable insane immigrant, 1907, 1911-1913, 1920 and 1922-1929
(RG 76, file 603995, reel C-10303)
Joseph Needham, undesirable, leprosy, 1907
(RG 76, file 615114, reel C-10305)
Geniale Licastro, undesirable, 1907
(RG 76, file 619617, reel C-10307)
Peter Devlin, Kingston. Appointed to a position on the outside service of the Immigration Branch (Deportation Officer), 1909-1912, 1918-1925, 1927-1930 and 1915
(RG 76, file 623970, pt. 4, 623970 (cards), reel C-10307)
Register for deportation of undesirable immigrants, 1907-1909 and 1913-1914
(RG 76, file 625452, reel C-10307)
Deportation; general file, 1932-1972 and 1974-1977
(RG 76, acc. 83-84/349, file 5230-1, pts. 1-4 and 6 and 7)
Deportation; files relating to specific countries, deportation appeal policy, appeal policy and procedures, and involvement of the Immigration Appeal Board in deportations, 1956-1975
(RG 76, acc. 83-84/349, file 5230-1-150 and 5235-9)

Records of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration (RG 26)

Deportation statistics, 1926-1964
(RG 26, vols. 16 and 23)
Various files and statements of deportation statistics generally and for specific immigrant groups, e.g., Communists, agitators, public charges, Hungarian refugees.

See also the RG 26 finding aids for files on the Immigration Appeal Board, amendments to the Immigration Act (e.g., vol. 77) and other related subjects.

Records of the Department of External Affairs (RG 25)

Scattered throughout RG 25 are files on particular deportation cases brought to the attention of the Department of External Affairs, 1890s-1940s; consult RG 25 finding aids for specific information.

Extradition; policy and procedures, 1920s-1950s
(RG 25, vols. 2690 and 2691)

2. Selected Bibliography

Drystek, Henry. "'The Simplest and Cheapest Mode of Dealing With Them': Deportation from Canada Before World War II," in Social History/Histoire sociale. XV (30), November 1982, pp. 407-441

Roberts, Barbara Ann. Whence They Came: Deportation from Canada, 1900-1935. Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1988

The Annual Reports of the successive departments responsible for immigration often contain references to, or statistics on, deportations.

Thematic Guides