Library and Archives Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada

Institutional links

ARCHIVED - Celebrating Women's Achievements

Archived Content

This archived Web page remains online for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. This page will not be altered or updated. Web pages that are archived on the Internet are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards. As per the Communications Policy of the Government of Canada, you can request alternate formats of this page on the Contact Us page.

Themes - Writing

Victoria Belcourt Callihoo

Photograph of Victoria Belcourt Callihoo


Métis Historian


Victoria Belcourt Callihoo was born in Lac Ste. Anne, a Métis community northwest of Edmonton. Living in Lac Ste. Anne for all her 104 years, she witnessed the many changes in Canadian life that took place in this time period. Questioning the value of money the first time she saw it, she preferred the "fur" system of barter which did not foster the hoarding of wealth. She was more approving of the telephone, as it permitted Callihoo, a woman related by blood or marriage to the Cree, Iroquois and French, to communicate in the language of her choice.

The daughter of a Cree medicine woman, she went to her first buffalo hunt in a Red River cart at age 13, when the great western bison herds could still be described as "a dark solid moving mass." She later farmed with her husband, Louis Callihoo, and raised 12 children. An expert teamster, she also freighted for the Hudson's Bay Company between Edmonton and Athabasca Landing.

Callihoo's vivid recollections, outlined in the Alberta Historical Review, are a remarkable window into 19th-century Métis daily life and customs. Indeed, she was still dancing the laborious Red River jig "the way it should be done" well past the age of 100.


Callihoo, Victoria. — "Early life in Lac Ste. Anne and St. Albert in the eighteen seventies". -- Alberta historical review. — Vol. 1, no. 3 (November 1953). — P. 21-26

______. — "The Iroquois in Alberta". — Alberta historical review. — Vol. 7, no. 2 (Spring 1959). — P. 17-18

______. — "Our buffalo hunts". — Alberta historical review. — Vol. 8, no. 1 (Winter 1960). — P. 24-25

MacEwan, Grant. — "Victoria Callihoo: granny". — Mighty women: stories of western Canadian pioneers. — Vancouver/Toronto: Greystone, c1995. — P. 190-199. — ISBN 1550544160

Previous | Next