Camera Workers: The British Columbia, Alaska & Yukon Photographic Directory, 1858-1950 - C - Volume 1 (1858-1900)

© 1999-2002 By David Mattison

Updated: 2002.09.28


NAME: C.S. Bailey & Co.
WHERE ACTIVE: Vancouver.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 113 Carrall St./1887-1888 ; 227 Hastings St./1888-1889.
WORK INTERVAL: 1887-1889.
STATUS: Studio.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: Begun by C.S. Bailey and also operating under the name Vancouver Art Emporium, the associates in this company were F.V. Bingham and E. Straube. The company was succeeded by Bailey & Neelands.
COLLECTIONS: BVA and BVAA (glass negatives and prints).
IDENTIFYING MARKS: "C. S. Bailey & Co." on print mount or verso of print mount; most prints numbered and captioned.
REFERENCES/ADVERTISING AND SOURCES (IMAGES): Various Vancouver newspapers; WIL88; HEN89; see also Bailey, C.S.

NAME: Calvert, J_________.
WHERE ACTIVE: Nanaimo.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1900.
STATUS: Amateur.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: Mattison research file PHOTOS--EXHIBITIONS.

Camera Club see Vancouver Camera Club.

NAME: Cameron, Agnes Deans.
LIFE DATES: 1863 12 20-1912 05 13.
BIRTHPLACE: Victoria.
PLACE OF DEATH: Victoria.
WHERE ACTIVE: Victoria.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR: 34 Michigan St./1897.
WORK INTERVAL: 1896.
STATUS: Amateur.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: A teacher and writer, Cameron reported on an amusing bicycling tour which she photographed. Among the achievements for which she is remembered were her appointment as the first woman teacher of a high school in the province (1890) as well as the first woman principal of a school (1894). In 1908 she made a 10,000 mile journey with her niece Jessie Cameron Brown up the Mackenzie River to the Arctic Circle. Cameron's account of this adventure was published as The New North (1910) and was illustrated with photographs taken by her and her niece. They did not pass through any part of British Columbia.
COLLECTIONS: BVICA (album of the Mackenzie River trip); BVIPA (albums).
IDENTIFYING MARKS: none on photos in BVICA album.
REFERENCES: WIL97; Western Recreation (1897 06):128-32; Cameron (1910); Pazdro (1980); BVIPA Reference Room VF.

NAME: Campbell, ---.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: New Westminster?
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1893.
STATUS: Amateur?
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: From a report on the New Westminster exhibition:
”Campbell's photographic collection adjoining the paintings attracts a great deal of attention.”
REFERENCES: News-Advertiser, 1893 09 28/6.

NAME: Campbell, J.F.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Fairview.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1900-1901.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: HEN00; HEN01.

NAME: Canfield, Francis Orra.
VARIANT: Canfield, Frank.
LIFE DATES: 1872 __ __-19__ __ .
BIRTHPLACE: Oxford (country), ON.
WHERE ACTIVE: New Westminster.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 620 Columbia St./1892.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: 463 Seventh St./1892.
WORK INTERVAL: 1890-1892.
STATUS: Commercial (assistant?).
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He worked for S.J. Thompson and later went into teaching. He retired as a principal from a New Westminster school in 1938.
REFERENCES: WIL92; HEN97; Howay & Scholefield (1914):v. 4; 1004-7; Columbian, 1949 12 24/12; 1955 12 31/18; 1956 01 10/1 (wife's obit.); Province, 1956 01 11/10 (wife's obit.).

Canfield, Frank see Canfield, Francis Orra.
NAME: Canning, Arthur Rafton.
VARIANT: Rafton-Canning, Arthur.
LIFE DATES: 1866? __ __-1952 12 15.
BIRTHPLACE: Paris, France.
PLACE OF DEATH: Vancouver, BC.
WHERE ACTIVE: Helena, MT ; Vancouver ; Nanaimo ; Kamloops ; Lethbridge, AB.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: Helena (MT)/1888-1892 ; 634 Cordova St. (Vancouver)/1897 ; Nanaimo/1898 ; Lethbridge/1899 ; Kamloops/1900.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: Victoria Cres. (Nanaimo)/1898.
WORK INTERVAL: 1897-1900 (BC only).
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He may have worked for the Edwards Bros. in 1897; the similarity in street numbers cannot be dismissed as coincidence. The List of Voters of 1898 and 1900 showed him in Nanaimo and Kamloops respectively, while Dempsey placed him in Lethbridge in September 1899. Nix provides a capsule biography, but contains no information on his work in BC.
Three photographs of Kamloops were published in October 1898.
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: WIL97; Voters List, 1898; 1900; BC Mining Record (1898 10); Dempsey (1978); Nix (1999).

NAME: Cantwell, George Gordon.
LIFE DATES: 1871 __ __-1948 03 03.
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH: Los Angeles, CA.
WHERE ACTIVE: Seattle; Dawson, Yukon/1898-____; Valdez [as photographer?], AK/19__-19__.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR:
STATUS: Commercial.
SUMMARY: Cantwell is credited with photographing the arrival of the Portland in Seattle on July 17, 1897.  The photograph in Cohen (1977:12) credited to Cantwell of the Excelsior docking at San Francisco the day before not only defies physics, it was taken by Samuel C. Partridge and shows the vessel departing.  Cantwell worked at both photography and taxidermy.  He published The Klondike, A Souvenir (ca. 1901) where his portrait appears on p. 11, along with photos by E.A. Hegg.  According to a 1930 list of California sourdoughs, he arrived via the Chilkoot Pass in 1898 and left the Klondike in 1920.  The Atwood book states he worked as a photographer and miner.
According to Seattle photohistorian Michael Cirelli, he also worked as a photographer in 1903-1904 in Everett, WA, with Colfax Bart (Bart & Cantwell) and also climbed and photographed Mt. Baker.  He also operated in partnership as Atwood & Cantwell with F.N. Atwood.  After settling in Los Angeles in 1922, Cantwell worked for the Los Angeles County Museum from 1929 to 1939 when he retired.  He was survived by his widow, Mrs. Margaret Cantwell, who died on November 24, 1951.
COLLECTIONS/FORMATS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS: Print surface signed "Cantwell".
REFERENCES: Clary Craig Klondike PO List (leaves 1901 09 20 for Puyallup, WA); Cantwell (1901?); Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 1903 09 20/40 (Mt. Baker ascent); Atwood (1930); Los Angeles Times, 1948 03 06/I-11 (obit.); California Death Record Index Microfiche; Cohen (1977):12 (arrival of Portland); Letter, Cirelli to Palmquist, 1989 03 12.

NAME: Caple, Norman.
LIFE DATES: 1866 __ __-1911 05 13.
BIRTHPLACE: Bristol, UK.
PLACE OF DEATH: Vancouver.
WHERE ACTIVE: Vancouver.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 302 Cordova St./1892-1893 ; 329 Hastings St./1894-1896 03 ; 517 Hastings St. (Ogle Block)/1896 03-1900 03 ; 546 Granville St./1900 03+.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: 807 Homer St./1893 ; 805 Homer St./1894 ; 828 Hamilton St./1895-1896 ; 539 Howe St./1897 ; 1025 Nelson St./1898-1900+.
WORK INTERVAL: 1889?-1896.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: Caple is supposed to have arrived in Canada in 1888 where he met R.H. Trueman through relatives or friends. The two men formed a partnership and had set up headquarters in Vancouver by 1890. After Trueman & Caple had been dissolved towards the end of 1893, both men continued in the photographic business as N. Caple & Co. and R.H. Trueman & Co. Caple seems to have given up advertising himself as a photographer by 1897.
Married in England in 1892 to Florence Kate Le Grix Akerman (1867-1950), the couple had four sons. He was an active YMCA member and frequently gave lantern slide entertainments there and elsewhere in the early 1890s. Coincidentally, both Trueman and Caple died the same year.
COLLECTIONS: BVAA (glass negatives and prints).
IDENTIFYING MARKS: "N. Caple & Co., Photo., Vancouver, B.C." on negative; many negatives numbered and captioned from Caple's partnership in Trueman & Caple.
REFERENCES: BVIPA GR-1415, probate file no. 1913; WIL92; WIL93; WIL94; WIL95; HOD96; Voters List, 1900 (Vancouver); Kenneth Caple (interview, BVIPA TAPE 3939:1); World, 1892 06 13/1 (marriage); Province, 1950 09 05 (Florence Caple obit.).


NAME: Carlyon, Fred W.
LIFE DATES: 1865 06 19-1956 03 07.
BIRTHPLACE: Union Grove, WI.
PLACE OF DEATH: Olympia, WA.
WHERE ACTIVE: Stikine River District, BC; Wrangell, AK.
WORK INTERVAL: 1898-1900+.
STATUS: Amateur.
SUMMARY: After having settled in Olympia, WA, in 1883, Carlyon moved to Wrangell where he operated a jewlery/watchmaking shop from 1898 to 1906. He practiced photography as a hobby and probably to earn a extra money. After living on a ranch near Yelm, WA, following his return from Alaska, he settled permanently in Olympia in 1923.
COLLECTIONS/FORMATS: BVIPA (photo no. HP023637).
IDENTIFYING MARKS: print surface usually numbered, captioned and signed "[By] F.W. Carlyon".
REFERENCES: Daily Olympian, 1956 03 08/19 (obit.); Letter, Michael Cirelli, 1992 07 08; 1995 10 16.

NAME: Carpenter, William Jefferson.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Rossland ; Greenwood ; Spokane, Wash. ; Vancouver.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 26 ½ Columbia (Rossland)/1897-1903 ; Greenwood/1899 ; Spokane, Wash./1905-1908 ; 303 Hastings W. St. (Vancouver)/1910-1913.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: St. Paul N. (Rossland)/1900-1903 ; 303 Hastings W. St./1910-1913.
WORK INTERVAL: 1896?-1913.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: Established in Rossland in 1896 or 1897 as Carpenter & Millar, the partnership dissolved about 1899 and Carpenter ran the business as Carpenter & Co. He worked out of Spokane between at least 1905 and 1908, then moved to Vancouver and remained there until 1913. His studio in Vancouver was also known as the Carpenter Studio.
COLLECTIONS: BGFBM; BVIPA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: see Carpenter & Millar and Carpenter & Co.
REFERENCES: HEN97; WIL97; HEN98; WIL99; HEN99; HEN00; HEN01; HEN02; HEN03; HEV10; HEN11; HEN12; HEN13; Boundary Museum (Grand Forks, BC).

NAME: Carpenter & Co.
WHERE ACTIVE: Rossland.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 26 ½ Columbia Ave./1899-1903.
WORK INTERVAL: 1899-1903.
STATUS: Studio.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: This company was established by W.J. Carpenter after his partnership with G.E. Millar was dissolved.
COLLECTIONS: BVIPA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: HEN99; HEN00; HEN02; HEN03.

NAME: Carpenter & Millar.
WHERE ACTIVE: Rossland.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 26 ½ Columbia Ave./1897-1899.
WORK INTERVAL: 1897-1899.
STATUS: Studio.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: Established by W.J. Carpenter and G.E. Millar, Carpenter operated under the name of Carpenter & Co. after the partnership was dissolved.
COLLECTIONS: BVIPA (prints).
IDENTIFYING MARKS: "Carpenter & Millar" on print.
REFERENCES: HEN97; WIL99.

NAME: Cartmel, James.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Victoria?
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1887.
STATUS: Amateur?
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: A print in the BC Archives shows HMS Amphion in drydock.
COLLECTIONS: BVIPA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: "Taken by Jas. Cartmel, July 1887."
REFERENCES: BVIPA photo no. HP002133.


NAME: Case, William H.
VARIANT: Case & Draper.
LIFE DATES: 1868 04 19-1920 07 16.
BIRTHPLACE: Marshall Town, IA.
PLACE OF DEATH: Juneau, AK.
WHERE ACTIVE: Lake Bennett, BC; Skagway, AK; Yukon.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: Skagway/1898-1914; Juneau/ca. 1905-1908.
WORK INTERVAL: 1898-1908? (Case & Draper); 1908?-19__ (Case, Juneau).
STATUS: Commercial.
SUMMARY: W.H. Case came to Alaska from Oregon as part of the Klondike stampede in 1898. Prior to that he had lived in South Dakota. He formed a partnership with H.H. Draper as Case & Draper. In 1901 the White Horse Star extolled their business as
The leading photographers in Alaska, and for that matter in the northwest. ... The firm owns one of the finest two-story buildings in Skagway, with a large display and reception room on the ground floor for their immense view and Kodak trade and have a fine studio on the second floor for portrait and development work.

Following the demise of the Case & Draper partnership, Case operated the Juneau branch studio.
COLLECTIONS/FORMATS: photo postcards; panoramas.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: negatives captioned and marked "Photo by Case & Draper".
REFERENCES: The Dalles Times-Mountaineer, 1883 11 24/3; 1884 03 29/3; 1889 06 22/3; White Horse Star, 1st Annual Ed., 1901 05 01/__; Bronson (1977); Cohen (1977); Grainger (Directory Alaska Postcards, 1992); Mautz, "Alaska and the Yukon" (draft TS, 1995); Letter, R.N. DeArmond, 1996 01 12; Letter, Michael Cirelli, 1996 01 23.

Case & Draper see Case, William H.
NAME: Cave, E.J.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Vancouver.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: 520 Seymour St./1893.
WORK INTERVAL: 1893.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS: BVAA; BVIPA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: print may be numbered and captioned; e.g. "Dinner Time at Barnet Mill 103"; "E. J. Cave Vancouver, B.C." in gold on print mount.
REFERENCES: WIL93.


NAME: Cawthon, James Brown.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Victoria.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: Douglas St. (Brunswick Hotel)/1898.
WORK INTERVAL: 1898.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: Voters List, 1898.


NAME: Chambers, Arthur Hyde.
LIFE DATES: 1852 __ __-1935 __ __.
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Northfield ; Nanoose Bay ; Victoria.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: Northfield/1892 ; Nanoose Bay/1895 ; 59 ½ Government St. (Victoria)/1899-1900.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: Clarke St./1899 ; 117 View St./1899 11.
WORK INTERVAL: 1892-1910.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: Chambers might have worked in Barcelona, Spain, as a photographer as early as July 1888. He turned up in Northfield as a "photographic artist" and later at Nanoose Bay in the same occupation. He subsequently moved to Victoria and worked at 59 ½ Government St. which he apparently sold to a Mr. A. Bloom in May 1900 for $200. By 1902 he was in Nanaimo where he signed an agreement with E.C. Brooks to take over Brooks' business. Chambers next showed up in Vancouver and turned to nursing after he had retired from photography.
COLLECTIONS: BVICA; BVIPA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: "A. H. Chambers, Photographer, Nanaimo, B.C." on print mount (BVIPA Visual Records accession no. 198203-015).
REFERENCES: BVICA 97001-03 Non-Visual; BVIPA E/D/B791; WIL95; HEN99; HEN00; HEN02; HEN03; HEN04; HEV05; HEV07; HEV08; HEV09; HEV10; Voters List, 1900.

Chapman, Howard see Chapman, John Howard Arthur.

NAME: Chapman, John Howard Arthur.
VARIANT: Chapman, Howard.
LIFE DATES: 1862? __ __-1942 06 12.
BIRTHPLACE: Trowbridge, Wiltshire, UK.
PLACE OF DEATH: Victoria.
WHERE ACTIVE: Victoria.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR: Ames Holden & Co. (of Montreal)/1897-1899.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR: 142 Menzies St./1897-1899.
WORK INTERVAL: ca. 1895-1936.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He arrived in Victoria from England in 1890 and worked as a travelling salesman. He appears to have combined his photography with his travelling. The Provincial Archives of British Columbia purchased Chapman's collection from him in 1936. Chapman's output ranged over a wide number of photographic subjects; he marketed many of his views as postcards.
COLLECTIONS: BVICA (postcards); BVIPA (negatives and prints).
IDENTIFYING MARKS: some late 1890s round prints signed "Howard Chapman Victoria, B.C."
REFERENCES: WIL97; HEN98; WIL99; Colonist, 1942 06 13/2 (obit.); Times, 1942 06 13/13 (obit.); Chapman (191-?); Anderson (1978); BVIPA Visual Records Photographer File.

NAME: Chapman, W.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Vancouver.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: ca. 1900+.
STATUS: Amateur?
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS: BVAA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: print surface signed "W. Chapman."
REFERENCES: BVAA BOATS P. 35.


NAME: Child, ___
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE:
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL:
STATUS:
SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS/FORMATS: UWL.
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: Cohen (1977).


NAME: Christiansen, Karl Brink.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE: Denmark.
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Cape Scott.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1899-1909.
STATUS: Amateur.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He arrived in the Danish colony of Cape Scott from Chicago as a teacher. He left the colony in 1909 but left behind a small legacy of photographs, only a few of which have survived.
COLLECTIONS: BVIPA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: Peterson (1974):41; 55; 97.


NAME: Clarke, J.H.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: New Westminster.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: ca. 1890.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS: BVAA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: print surface may be numbered, captioned and signed "J.H.  Clarke, Photos".
REFERENCES: BVAA Photo Collection 256/13.


NAME: Claudet, Francis George.
LIFE DATES: 1837 02 15-1906 03 13.
BIRTHPLACE: London, UK.
PLACE OF DEATH: London, UK.
WHERE ACTIVE: New Westminster.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1860-1873.
STATUS: Amateur.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: Appointed to manage the assay office and mint at New Westminster, Claudet arrived in the Colony of British Columbia from London in February 1860. In June 1860 he visited Dr. A.R. Benson in Nanaimo, an amateur photographer with whom Claudet was not impressed. Lady Franklin (1792-1875) purchased or was given photographs of New Westminster by Claudet on March 13, 1861. Her niece and travelling companion, Sophia Cracroft (1816-1892), called the views "very interesting." Sent by Governor James Douglas to San Francisco in November 1861 to purchase equipment for the mint, Claudet may have obtained additional photographic supplies there; he had visited San Francisco earlier in the year and may also have purchased supplies then. Claudet returned to New Westminster from San Francisco with his mint equipment in March 1862 on the same boat which brought Richard and Hannah Maynard to Victoria.
Some of Claudet's photographs were sent to the London Exhibition of 1862 along with specimen coins from the mint. Claudet returned to London in 1873. He was married in Victoria on September 22, 1863 to Frances Fleury (1836-1899). The youngest son of talented portrait photographer, Antoine Francois Jean Claudet (1797-1867), one of Francis Claudet's sons, Frederick G. Claudet of Nanoose Bay, BC, preserved many of his father's photographs.
COLLECTIONS: BVIPA; BVAUS.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: some prints marked "Claudet."
REFERENCES: BVIPA Claudet papers, A/E/C57/C57; HOW63; MAL68; MAL69; MAL71; Reid (1926); Cracroft (1974):35; 68; Mattison (1990a); Mattison (1990c); BVIPA Visual Records Photographer File.


NAME: Clavering, Robert Knox.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Vancouver.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: 719 Richards St./1900.
WORK INTERVAL: 1900.
STATUS: Commercial?
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: Voters List, 1900.


NAME: Cleveland, V.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Discovery (Pine City), BC ; Nome, AK.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1899.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He worked with A.C. Pillsbury as Pillsbury & Cleveland.
COLLECTIONS: see A.C. Pillsbury.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: see A.C. Pillsbury.
REFERENCES: See A.C. Pillsbury.


NAME: Clum, John P.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE/WHEN ACTIVE: Alaska; Yukon/1898-1899.
STATUS: Amateur (visit).
SUMMARY: Chief clerk to the Chief Post Office Inspector in Washington, D.C., Clum spent six months touring Alaska and the Yukon. He subsequently gave illustrated lectures for missionary purposes on the Eastern seaboard.
COLLECTIONS/FORMATS: stereo; lantern slides (tinted).
REFERENCES: Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 1899 02 08/12 (via M. Cirelli, 1997 02 25).

NAME: Clutterbuck, Walter J.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: B.C. ; Windermere ; East Kootenays.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1887.
STATUS: Amateur.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He recorded his exploration adventures in B.C. 1887: A Ramble In British Columbia. His nickname was the Skipper and it was under this nom de plume that an amusing story is told in chapter 29 about an attempt to photograph a bear.
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: Lees and Clutterbuck (1889).


NAME: Collins, R.B.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Vancouver.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 31 Carrall St./1892 01.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1892 01-?
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: His newspaper ad read in part
”For the finest photographs in the city call on R. B. Collins, who has had 20 years' experience in the United States and England.”
The address was John White's old studio.
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: World, 1892 01 23/4.

NAME: Coltart, ___.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Salmon Arm.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: Salmon Arm/1896.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: Salmon Arm/1896.
WORK INTERVAL: 1896 01-04.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He had a brief partnership with J.T. Hatherley as Coltart & Hatherley.
REFERENCES: (Kamloops) Inland Sentinal, 1896 04 07/_ (partnership dissolution); information from D.M. Stewart.

NAME: Coltart & Hatherley.
WHERE ACTIVE: Salmon Arm.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: Salmon Arm/1896.
WORK INTERVAL: 1896 01-04.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: Partnership of Mr. Coltart and J.T. Hatherley.
REFERENCES: (Kamloops) Inland Sentinal, 1896 04 07/_ (partnership dissolution); information from D.M. Stewart.

NAME: Conderoy, R.A.
VARIANT: Condery, R.A.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Vancouver.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 225 Carrall St./1899.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: Alexander St./1899.
WORK INTERVAL: 1899.
STATUS: Printer.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He worked for Alphonse Savard's Imperial Studio.
REFERENCES: WIL99.


Condery, R.A. see Conderoy, R.A.

NAME: Cook, James.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: New Westminster.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: Columbia St. (Hawley Block)/1900-1901.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: Ash St./1900.
WORK INTERVAL: 1900-1901.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He worked for E.F. Easthope & Co.
REFERENCES: HEN00.


NAME: Cook, John.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Victoria.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: 105 ½ Douglas St./1900
WORK INTERVAL: 1900.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: HEN00.


NAME: Cook, T.J.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Vancouver.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1898.
STATUS: Amateur?.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: BVAA Photo Collection 107/1.


NAME: Cooke, J. Reginald.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Vernon.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1900 04.
STATUS: Commercial (itinerant).
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: Vernon News, 1900 04 05.


NAME: Cooper, Alexander D.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Donald.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR: Virden, MB/1891.
WORK INTERVAL: 1891.
STATUS: Commercial (itinerant).
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He visited Donald in 1891. He may be the same A.D. Cooper listed as a photographer in the 1901 business directory.
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: HEN01; Dempsey (1978).


Cooper-Coles, Mr. see Vancouver Camera Club.

NAME: Coughlan, J.A.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Nanaimo.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: Church St.?/1889.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1889.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: WIL89.


Coughlan, William C. see Coughlan, William P.

NAME: Coughlan, William P.
VARIANT: Coughlan, William C. ; Coughlin, W. P. ; Laughlan, M. P.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Nanaimo.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: Church St.?/1889 ; Fitzpatrick St.?/1893; 26 Fitzwilliam St.?/1895-1900.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: Fitzwilliam St./1892; 26 Fitzpatrick St./1895.
WORK INTERVAL: 1888-1900.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: The earliest mention of his work was an article which described a photograph he took of the ship Northbrook at anchor. An ad he ran in the Nanaimo paper described him as a "home photographer." His work was primarily portraiture. Coughlan was involved in an interesting exchange of newspaper letters with the Great Eastern Photographic and Advertising Co. in July 1888.
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: Nanaimo Free Press, 1888 07 25/3; 1888 08 04/3; WIL89; HEN90; HEN91; WIL92; WIL93; WIL95; HEN98; HEN99; WIL99; HEN00.


Coughlin, W.P. see Coughlan, William P.

NAME: Cowan, Thomas H.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Rossland.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 111 ½ E. Columbia/1900.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1900.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: HEN00.


NAME: Cowderoy, William "Harry."
LIFE DATES: 1882? __ __-1953 02 11.
BIRTHPLACE: London, UK.
PLACE OF DEATH: Vancouver.
WHERE ACTIVE: Vancouver.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 410 Alexander St.?/1899.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: 410 Alexander St./1897-1899.
WORK INTERVAL: 1899.
STATUS: Commercial?
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: According to his obituary he arrived in Vancouver in 1887 aboard the first train from Montreal. While he was listed as a bookbinder's apprentice in the 1897-1898 and 1900+ directories, he was shown as a photographer in the 1899 directory. At the time of his death he was a vice president of the Wrigley Printing Co., Vancouver, a position he had held for nearly twenty years. He was considered to be one of the most outstanding bookbinders in Canada.
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: HEN97; WIL97; HEN99; WIL99; Vancouver News-Herald, 1953 02 13/1 (obit.).


NAME: Cowe, ---.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Kelowna.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1895?
STATUS: Commercial?
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY:
COLLECTIONS: BVIPA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: BVIPA photo no. HP002112.


Cracknell, E.E. see Vancouver Camera Club.


NAME: Crahan, Thomas.
WHERE/WHEN ACTIVE: Dawson, Yukon/1899 summer.
STATUS: Cinematographer (assistant, commercial).
SUMMARY: Manager of the Klondike Exposition Company, he assisted R.K. Bonine in the preparation of moving pictures for the 1900 Paris International Exposition.
REFERENCES: Klondike Nugget, 1899 07 22/4; 1899 08 02/1; 1899 08 23/6; 1899 09 06/8 (all via M. Cirelli).


NAME: Craig, M.H.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Dawson, Yukon.
WORK INTERVAL: 1898.
STATUS: Commercial?.
SUMMARY: He arrived via the Chilkoot Pass and Lake Bennett with his wife in 1898. A Morte H. Craig is listed as an engineer in the 1903 Polk directory.
COLLECTIONS/FORMATS: UWA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: print surface captioned, dated, numbered and marked "Copyrighted M.H. Craig Dawson".
REFERENCES: Polk 1903 Gazetteer Directory; Berton (1983: 127).

NAME: Craigg, J. Augustus.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Victoria.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: Government St., W. side near View St./1869 06-1872 04.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: Douglas St./1869.
WORK INTERVAL: 1869 06-1872 04.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He purchased the Theatre Photographic Gallery from George Robinson in May or June 1869 and sold the same business to S.A. Spencer in April 1872. Craigg appears to have taken only portraits during his proprietorship, but he worked outdoors as well as inside. In April 1870 he took a group portrait of Oddfellows in front of the Victoria Theatre on the occasion of their 51st anniversary.
COLLECTIONS: BVIPA.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: "J. A. Craigg, Photo., Gov't Street" on front of carte-de-visite; "J. A. Craigg, Photographer, Theatre Building, Government Street, Victoria, B.C." on verso of same carte-de-visite. "J. A. Craigg, Photographer, Government Street, Victoria, B.C." on verso of carte-de-visite.
REFERENCES/ADVERTISING AND SOURCES (IMAGES): MAL69 (and ad p. 75); MAL71; Colonist, 1869 03 29-05 06 [G. R. Robinson ad for sale]; 1869 06 22-09 07 [Craigg ad]; 1870 04 27/3; 1872 04 12/3.


NAME: Cravatte, Lillie (Miss).
VARIANT:
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Victoria.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 56 Fort St./1899.
HOME ADDRESS/YEAR: 8 Carr St./1899.
WORK INTERVAL: 1899.
STATUS: Printer.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: She was employed by George Preston.
REFERENCES: WIL99.


NAME: Crowell, George W.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Victoria.
BUSINESS ADDRESS/YEAR: 112 Government St./1885.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1885.
STATUS: Unknown.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He worked for Peterson & Crowell.
REFERENCES: WIL85.


NAME: Crowell & McClure.
WHERE ACTIVE: Vancouver ; San Francisco, CA.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR: San Francisco.
WORK INTERVAL: 1889 08.
STATUS: Commercial (visit).
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: One or both visited Vancouver and were reported to be photographing buildings and streets for a publication about the Pacific Northwest coast of the US and Canada.
COLLECTIONS:
IDENTIFYING MARKS:
REFERENCES: World, 1889 08 03/4.


NAME: Cumming, Robert D.
VARIANT: Cunningham, Robert ; Cummings, Robert D.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Lillooet.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1892-1895.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He was a partner in the Cumming Bros.
COLLECTIONS: see Cumming Bros.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: see Cumming Bros.
REFERENCES: WIL92; WIL93; WIL94; WIL95; Voters List, 1894.


NAME: Cumming, William, Jr.
VARIANT: Cunningham, William, Jr. ; Cummings, William, Jr.
LIFE DATES:
BIRTHPLACE:
PLACE OF DEATH:
WHERE ACTIVE: Lillooet.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1892.
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: He was a partner in the Cumming Bros.
COLLECTIONS: see Cumming Bros.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: see Cumming Bros.
REFERENCES: WIL92.


NAME: Cumming Bros.
WHERE ACTIVE: Lillooet.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR:
WORK INTERVAL: 1892-1895?
STATUS: Studio ; Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: Managed by Robert D. and William, Jr., the company specialized in views of the Fraser River and hydraulic mines.
COLLECTIONS: BVIPA photo nos. HP009563 and HP039741.
IDENTIFYING MARKS: "Cumming Brothers, Photographic Artists . . . Lillooet, B.C." on verso of print (BVIPA).
REFERENCES: Verso of BVIPA photos. 
Cummings, Robert D. see Cumming, Robert D.

Cummings, William, Jr. see Cumming, William, Jr.

Cunningham, Robert see Cumming, Robert D.

Cunningham, William, Jr. see Cumming, William, Jr.

NAME: Curtis, Asahel.
LIFE DATES: 1874 __ __-1941 __ __.
BIRTHPLACE: Le Sueur County, MN.
PLACE OF DEATH: Seattle, WA.
WHERE/WHEN ACTIVE: Alaska; Seattle (1895-1941), WA; Yukon; various locales in BC/1897-1931.
WORK INTERVAL: 1895-1941.
STATUS: Commercial.
SUMMARY: Asahel received his intial training from his famous brother E.S. Curtisolder brother and was first employed by him beginning about 1895.  Edward assigned him to cover developments in the Yukon in 1897.  Asahel left Seattle on the Rosalie just before the new year began and carried a year's worth of supplies along with 3,000 glass negatives.  An article in Cenury Illustrated Monthly Magazine (March 1898) by E.S. Curtis is illustrated with his younger brother's photographs, but credited to the elder Curtis.  This caused a permanent rift between the brothers and Asahel had a difficult time recovering the negatives.
The Klondike Nugget reported his arrival in Dawson in late June, noting that “Mr. Curtis is a photographer, taking views and writing sketches for the Alaska News Syndicate of Seattle.”  Asahel stationed himself in Alaska until 1900 when he returned to Seattle.  His photographs, though not as well known as E.A. Hegg's, capture equally well the grim determination of the goldseekers. 
Like his more famous older brother Edward, he attempted to document the lives of the Indians in the Washington, but in a more realistic fashion than that practiced by Edward. Asahel visited BC on several occasions. Among the sights he photographed in BC were bays, bridges, canyons, cities, lakes, mountains, Princess Louisa Inlet, rivers, valleys, waterfalls and waterways (according to a list of subject headings in Frederick & Engerman).
Asahel Curtis’ later work as an industrial and publicity photographer based in Seattle until his death serves as one of the most important visual records of the Pacific Northwest, including British Columbia.
E.S. Curtis never photographed in the Yukon, but he was the official photographer to Alaska on the (Edward H.) Harriman Expedition of 1899.  A description of E.S. Curtis’s camera gear on this privately financed scientific expedition appears in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer (May 21, 1899/13).
COLLECTIONS/FORMATS: UWL (prints); WSHS (glass negatives + prints).
IDENTIFYING MARKS: print surface usually numbered, captioned, dated and marked "Curtis" or "Asahel Curtis".
REFERENCES: Klondike Nugget, 1898 06 28/4 (“Personal”); Bronson and Reinhardt (1977; port. with camera p.79) ; Cohen (1977); Goetzmann and Sloan (1982); Frederick (1983); Frederick & Engerman (1983); Davis (1985); Mattison (1997a); Washington State Historical Society, Golden Dreams; Washington State Historical Society, Northwest Imagery; University of Washington Libraries, Asahel Curtis Photo Company Collection.


NAME: Curtis, Edward Sheriff.
LIFE DATES: 1868 02 19-1952 10 21.
BIRTHPLACE: Wisconsin.
PLACE OF DEATH: Los Angeles, CA.
WHERE ACTIVE: Seattle, WA ; BC (before 1900 ?) ; Alaska.
BUSINESS ADDRESS-YEAR: Seattle.
HOME ADDRESS-YEAR: Seattle.
WORK INTERVAL: 1891-1900+ (in Seattle).
STATUS: Commercial.
BIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY: Curtis' life story has been told several times yet the early years of his photographic business have not been detailed to the extent that it is possible to fix a time prior to 1900 when he might have visited BC. Curtis had two partnerships in Seattle between 1891-1897 as a portrait photographer under the names Rothi & Curtis and Curtis & Guptil (Holm, 1980). He entered a collection of his photographs in the New Westminster Provincial Fair of 1898. In 1899 he voyaged to Alaska as official photographer of the E.H. Harriman expedition. His brother Asahel Curtis was also a photographer and covered the Klondike gold rush.
In addition to his posed photographs of British Columbia Native Indians in the 1900s and 1910s, published as part the monumental The North American Indian (1907-1930), he also produced a melodramatic retelling on film of a Kwakiutl legend. This was photographed in 1914 at Deer Island off Fort Rupert, northern Vancouver Island. The film, In the Land of the Headhunters, was rediscovered and restored with a soundtrack between 1967 and 1974; it was also retitled as In the Land of the War Canoes. Motion picture camera operator Edmund Schwinke also documented the filming with his own 1903 Kodak still camera.
COLLECTIONS: see Witkin (1979).
IDENTIFYING MARKS: see Witkin (1979).
REFERENCES: News-Advertiser, 1898 10 13/5; Witkin (1979); Holm (1980); Goetzmann and Sloan (1982); Lyman (1982); Frederick (1983); Flury (1984 01):24-43; Davis (1985); Washington State Historical Society, Northwest Imagery; University of Washington Libraries, Harriman Alaska Expedition Photograph Album; Edward S. Curtis' The North American Indian Photographic Images (Northwestern University Library and American Memory, Library of Congress).